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Addressing the Complex Nature of Pain

Pain, like all things in nature is transient. Therefore, to be alive and exist in a physical body in essence means we are inevitably vulnerable to some form of pain. It is also a complex phenomenon and our responses to it are deeply conditioned. Thus, the key to dealing with the difficulty of pain lies in the attitude we choose to take toward it.

Pain is an unpleasant fact in life. In approaching it, there is a notable distinction between pain and suffering. Aversion to physical and psychological discomfort generated by pain is, more often than not, an unwise strategy for fruitfully enjoying and living out one’s life. That sensation itself can provide us the anchor for our overall awareness.

Suffering however is not the same as pain, although the two are usually equated as the being same. Suffering is in essence an emotional and cognitive reactions to the discomfort pain produces. As the sensation of pain arises, it is met with a number of conditioned responses. Underlying these conditioned reactions is often a set of misconstrued notions that pain should not occur. This belief becomes a key source to most of our suffering. The notion that pain should not be encountered by us is at best delusional and inconsistent with not only our physical existence but also the nature of the world. Therefore, developing a strategy to lessen our suffering, allows us also discover it may lessen our pain, as well.

Accordingly, it is also essential to make wise decisions when we are attempting to gain knowledge of ways in which to accept this facet of life as it is, and devise appropriate means for learning to manage and form more wholesome ways to respond to its inevitable and often unexpected circumstances.

There is a distinction between pain and suffering,

What constitutes pain tends to be highly subjective. Thus, it is conventionally defined by the capriciously unpleasant sensations encountered over the course of life. Pain in a general sense, is the body’s indication to its mind, that some facet of the being needs its attention, and in many cases leads to seeking out medical interventions in hope that they may reduce or eliminate some of those sensations of pain, while expectantly addressing and identifying its root cause. Often, our approach to the difficulties of pain is to avoid it rather than confront it.

The sensation of pain itself can provide us with a basis for our awareness. We may find that pain and the suffering that so often accompanies it can be ameliorated with proper attention to it over time. In fact, those enduring chronic pain find that becoming fully aware of their pain is successful in ameliorating the types of pain that medicines are unable to treat.

Medication and medical procedures can aid in diminishing pain, but there is also the need to use wisdom when undertaking and applying this method, as well as any other approach. Medications used to diminish pain can be addictive and even mask, hinder and/or complicate the deeper causes of the distress. Of course, there may also be times when both medication or medical intervention is ineffective and other means or a combination thereof, may be requisite, helpful, or more appropriate in dealing with the sensation of pain and the level of suffering it tends to produce.

Suffering often appears to occur as the mind negatively responds to those sensations it identifies as pain. In this sense, distinguishing pain from suffering may become somewhat unclear. Since pain is inescapable and certainly an inevitable part of living as we know it, suffering then may be viewed as an attachment or optional condition of it. Having the courage to acceptance suffering can lead to its end and is a fundamental attitude for facing the difficulty of pain or other issues.

The resistance to pain naturally occurring in life produces suffering, as such; it manifests itself into various forms and elicits a range of emotional and behavioral responses, which develop into a plethora of aversions. The more the mind becomes directed and unduly focused on resisting the pain, the greater the amount of suffering seemingly becomes. This “conditioning” results in behavioral changes by seeking a way or means to potentially alleviate pain, and its physical discomfort, sometimes, with unskillful methods and perhaps even in harmful ways.

Another approach to diminishing suffering connected to the physical pain and discomfort experienced, is to learn to reach some level of acceptance regarding it, and reflecting upon what gaining a deeper knowledge of the pain has to teach. Facing the difficulties when dealing with pain, is made easier by viewing them as opportunities to grow in our awareness – deepening our self-knowledge and skills in meeting the challenges faced by them.

Pain is a complex phenomenon and responses to it are deeply conditioned.

Coping with the physical discomfort of pain may often lead to discouragement. In turn, discouragement can lead to a sense of helplessness and hopelessness. It is necessary therefore, to remind us that the struggles we face and the ostensible failures we may encounter the sensation produced by our pain are all a part of the process of living.

The experiences of being disheartened by the condition of our painful sensations can help us recognize their origins and the realization that any discouragement it may produce is merely an emotion and its transience nature will inevitably pass away.

Personal observation, experience and an intrinsic awareness of pain aid in approaching other possible solutions on how to effectively deal with it, Pain being dynamic in its nature, is ever changing. However, this changing nature is not always easy to detect. Yet reaching a position of recognizing and gaining an awareness of pain aids in mitigating the sensations it has upon both the mind and body.

Stepping back and viewing pain from different perspectives can provide an effective method to reflect upon it without being emotionally attached to it, thus allowing the process to momentarily redirect attention away from the pain and move toward a better understanding or an alternative method of how to deal with it. This begins to happen once the actual sensations are clearly distinguished from preconditioned thought processes or other preconceived notions held about those sensations.

The ability to successfully accomplish this task makes it possible to recognize the cognitive role conditioned thought patterns and responses play in the perception of pain. Moreover, introspection and awareness of how negative attachments or self-commentary develops and how it can exacerbate the condition also becomes a valuable learning tool. We often seem to forget that the things that contribute most to our personal development are the trials we have faced and passed through

Examining our past history with pain and the conditions that form it, allows a means to reflect upon its origins, true nature, and ways of thinking that have shaped our minds concerning it, including the behaviors created and produced for coping with it. This establishes a baseline from which to apply and further evolve a dynamic and productive strategy needed for dealing with it in the present. In addition, the difficulties often associated with the pains we encounter in lifer, can instill a fear that those pains will some way overwhelm us. This is more often than not, found to be unwarranted. Therefore, by viewing such difficulties from a perspective that the vast majority of fears we face in life will never actually materialize, it can allow us to move forward by realizing that the pains we encounter are merely something needing our attention and not a major crisis or problem requiring a solution. In essence, it transforms into merely something, which we can choose to learn from and observe

Almost everyone has to adjust to the physical discomfort that accompanies pain. When it is encountered, our response is usually to do what we can to eliminate it. However, there are certain discomforts that cannot be removed by altering our circumstances. As a result, implementing a sound method and strategy for effectively dealing with pain becomes an important part in making wise personal decisions for the future and learning new ways to accept this inescapable facet of life. It also opens the door to healthy behaviors that support and formulate a means of facing and suitably responding to its inevitable outcome and sometimes-unexpected conditions.

Space Weather Events

On 23 October there will be a partial eclipse of the Sun.

Sunspot number: 93

Planetary K-index
Now: Kp= 3 quiet
24-hr max: Kp= 5

Geomagnetic Storm Forecasts

The geomagnetic storm probabilities are the estimated chances of at least one 3-hour K index, at the indicated level, for each of the next 3 days.

Active: K = 4.
Minor storm: K = 5.
Major or Severe storm: K > 6.

The “K index” is a 3-hourly quasi-logarithmic local index of geomagnetic activity relative to an assumed quiet-day curve for the recording site. Range is from 0 to 9. The K index measures the deviation of the most disturbed horizontal component of the magnetic field.

On 20, October 2014, the NASA all-sky camera network reported 28 fireballs. (20 sporadics, 8 Orionids)

On 21 October 2014 there were 1508 Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs).

2014 October 19 at 6:19 p.m. MDT (2014 October 20 0019 UTC)

Summary For October 13-19

R1 (Minor) radio blackout conditions were observed on 14, 16, and 18 October, with R3 (Strong) radio blackout conditions observed on 19 October, all due to flare activity from active sunspot Region 2192.

G1 (Minor) geomagnetic storms were observed on 14 and 15 October as the result of a glancing blow passage of the coronal mass ejection (CME) that left the sun on 10 October.

No S1 or greater solar radiation storms were observed.

Outlook For October 20-26

R1 (Minor) or greater radio blackouts are expected during the outlook period as active sunspot Region 2192 transits the solar disk.

No G1 (Minor) or greater geomagnetic storms are expected.

No S1 (Minor) or greater solar radiation storms are expected.

For current space weather conditions see: Space Weather Now, Today’s Space Weather and Space Weather Alerts

More Information:
USAF/NOAA  3-day Report of Solar and Geophysical Activity Report and Forecast  – Updates
WSA-Enlil Solar Wind Prediction
Recently Reported Solar Events
SolarSoft’s “latest events”

Alerts Issued for 20-21 October 2014

Space Weather Message Code: WARK04
Serial Number: 2351
Issue Time: 2014 Oct 21 0653 UTC

EXTENDED WARNING: Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 2350
Valid From: 2014 Oct 18 0121 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2014 Oct 21 1400 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence
Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents – Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora – Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

Space Weather Message Code: WARK05
Serial Number: 924
Issue Time: 2014 Oct 20 1947 UTC

EXTENDED WARNING: Geomagnetic K-index of 5 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 923
Valid From: 2014 Oct 20 1639 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2014 Oct 21 0400 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence
Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents – Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft – Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora – Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

Space Weather Message Code: WATA20
Serial Number: 586
Issue Time: 2014 Oct 20 1829 UTC

WATCH: Geomagnetic Storm Category G1 Predicted
Highest Storm Level Predicted by Day:
Oct 21: G1 (Minor) Oct 22: None (Below G1) Oct 23: None (Below G1)
Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 60 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents – Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Spacecraft – Minor impact on satellite operations possible.
Aurora – Aurora may be visible at high latitudes, i.e., northern tier of the U.S. such as northern Michigan and Maine.

Space Weather Message Code: WARK04
Serial Number: 2350
Issue Time: 2014 Oct 20 1947 UTC

EXTENDED WARNING: Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 2349
Valid From: 2014 Oct 18 0121 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2014 Oct 21 0700 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence
Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents – Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora – Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

Space Weather Message Code: WARK04
Serial Number: 2349
Issue Time: 2014 Oct 20 1337 UTC

EXTENDED WARNING: Geomagnetic K-index of 4 expected
Extension to Serial Number: 2348
Valid From: 2014 Oct 18 0121 UTC
Now Valid Until: 2014 Oct 20 2300 UTC
Warning Condition: Persistence
Potential Impacts: Area of impact primarily poleward of 65 degrees Geomagnetic Latitude.
Induced Currents – Weak power grid fluctuations can occur.
Aurora – Aurora may be visible at high latitudes such as Canada and Alaska.

Biological Health Hazard – Measles: Australia

Biological Health Hazard – Health Threat: Measles

Biological Health Hazard  – Measles Outbreak
Australia/New Zealand – Australia| State of Queensland, Brisbane
Bio-hazard Level: 2/4 Medium
Location: S 27° 23.226, E 153° 7.255
Deaths: 0
Humans Infected: 3

Biological Hazard in Australia on Monday, 20 October, 2014 at 13:25 (01:25 PM) UTC.

Queensland Health is warning travelers on Jetstar Airlines flight JQ46 to be alert for symptoms of measles. The flight departed Denpasar for Brisbane on Wednesday night (15 October) and arrived Thursday morning (16 October). The warning comes as 3 passengers who traveled on this flight were confirmed to have been infectious with measles. Queensland Health Acting Senior Director of Communicable Diseases Dr Alun Richards said measles was highly contagious among people who were not fully iimmunized. “Measles is spread through coughing and sneezing, and symptoms can include fever, tiredness, runny nose, cough and sore red eyes which usually last for several days before a red, blotchy rash appears,” Dr Richards said. “People usually feel quite ill and are miserable. Complications can include an ear infection and diarrhea to more serious and potentially life threatening conditions pneumonia or swelling of the brain.” Dr Richards said that people born during or after 1966 who have not received two doses of measles vaccine are particularly susceptible to measles. People born before 1966 are usually immune because they are likely to have been exposed to measles during childhood. “So far this year, 59 Queenslanders have suffered measles having caught it overseas or from someone else who caught it overseas.” Dr Richards said. Susceptible passengers who may have been exposed to measles on this flight could expect symptoms to appear any time between 23 October and 3 November. Local public health units will be contacting passengers who were seated closest to the infected passengers. Other passengers seated elsewhere on the plane may have been exposed to measles and should also be alert for symptoms. “Passengers who develop these symptoms should phone ahead when seeking medical attention to ensure they don’t share the waiting area with other patients,” Dr Richards said. Dr Richards said that children should receive 2 doses of measles vaccine at 12 months and 4 years of age. “People planning travel should also check with their GP and have a measles vaccine if they don’t have written evidence of having received the 2 doses during their lifetime,” Dr Richards said.

Previous Report:

Biological Hazard in Australia on Thursday, 31 July, 2014 at 13:49 (01:49 PM) UTC.

Health authorities have issued a measles alert for passengers on a flight from Singapore to Perth last Saturday, amid a surge in cases of the disease. The WA Health Department said late today that people on Singapore Airlines flight SQ225 may have been exposed to measles, after confirming a passenger on the plane was infectious with the disease. The passenger also travelled on Singapore Airlines flight SQ5066 from Davao in the Philippines to Singapore earlier the same day. Dr Paul Effler from the Communicable Disease Control Directorate said measles was highly infectious and spread through coughing and sneezing. Symptoms included fever, tiredness, runny nose, cough and sore red eyes which usually lasted for several days before a red, blotchy rash appeared. Complications could include pneumonia or swelling of the brain. Susceptible passengers who may have been exposed to measles on the flight could expect symptoms to appear any time between Saturday and August 12. “Passengers who develop these symptoms should seek medical attention, but it is important that they phone ahead first to ensure they don’t share the waiting area with other patients and risk infecting them,” Dr Effler said. “The local public health units are attempting to contact passengers who were seated closest to the infected traveler and are most at risk, however, other passengers seated elsewhere on the plane may have been exposed to the virus and should also be alert for symptoms.” WA is experiencing a surge in measles, with 33 cases so far this year which is more than WA has seen in any entire year for the past decade. Nine of the patients this year have been hospitalised and half were adults aged between 20 and 49.


Nuclear Event – Reactor Shutdown, equipment damage: Tamil Nadu, India

Technological Hazard – Nuclear Event – Reactor Shutdown

 Asia– India | State of Tamil Nadu, Kudankulam, Tirunelveli District, Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant
Location: N 8° 10.133, E 77° 42.750
Damage Level: Unknown
Affect: Unknown

 The Kudankulam Nuclear Power Station

The Kudankulam Nuclear Power Station. Nuclear Power Corporation of India

 Nuclear Event in India on Tuesday, 21 October, 2014 at 03:46 (03:46 AM) UTC.

An unforeseen “mechanical malfunction and consequent damage” to a vital component has crippled the turbine of the first reactor of the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project, delaying the resumption of power generation. The reactor was stopped for mandatory tests prior to the start of commercial power generation. Though KKNPP Site Director R.S. Sundar said in a statement that the reactor was expected to be back in service in eight weeks, sources in the KKNPP said of power generation might take four more weeks to resume. After the turbine generator operated for 4,701 hours, yielding 282.50 crore units of electricity, it was stopped on July 30 for the “annual maintenance and mandatory tests” usually done on the 1,000-MWe Russian VVER reactors. After the reactor attained criticality on September 13, the KKNPP management said it was inching towards commercial power generation. However, the turbine was stopped within the next few hours owing to the “malfunction of a vital component” in the rotary engine. “Since the malfunction damaged a vital component, we’re rectifying or replacing it,” the sources said. Though this component was supplied by a foreign company, the KKNPP administration was planning to fabricate it at BHEL. Demanding the resignation of Mr. Sundar for the “mess-up,” People’s Movement Against Nuclear Energy coordinator S.P. Udayakumar said in his Facebook post on Monday that the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) that had tested the reactor “repeatedly” and certified each step should answer serious questions arising at this juncture. “How come they [AERB experts] did not detect any problem in the turbine? What kind of tests did they do? How did they give all-clear certification? Who is the responsible officer there for the current mess?” he said.


Nuclear Event – Reactor Shutdown, feedwater control system failure: Perry Nuclear Generating Station, Ohio

Nuclear Event – Reactor Shutdown

North-America – USA | State of Ohio, Laka County, Perry Nuclear Generating Station
Location: N 41° 48.050, W 81° 8.600
Event Location: 56 km (35 mi.) NE of Cleveland, Ohio

 Nuclear Event in USA on Tuesday, 21 October, 2014 at 03:30 (03:30 AM) UTC.

The Perry Nuclear Power Plant shut down on Oct. 20 after a momentary loss of power. At about 2 a.m., crews were working to switch the power supplies for the feedwater control system from its main source to an alternate source as part of routine maintenance, said FirstEnergy spokeswoman Jennifer Young. The feedwater system brings water into the reactor and has a few different uses, including keeping the reactor cool. During this switch, the feedwater system lost power for a few seconds, Young said. While backup systems automatically kicked on, the water level did drop a few inches during this power interruption. Still, 14 feet of water was above the fuel, she said. Power to the system was restored back to its main source, but the plant was safely shut down as crews investigate what caused the power loss. “It’s not enough to just restore power, we have to determine why it happened,” Young said. Young also stressed that there was no impact to public health and safety. When the plant will resume operation is still unknown. According to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission event report, the incident was classified as “non-emergency.” The state of Ohio, Perry Township and the NRC resident inspector were notified of the incident.

Previous report:

Nuclear Event in USA on Thursday, 03 April, 2014 at 13:36 (01:36 PM) UTC.

The operator of a northeast Ohio nuclear power plant says a refrigerant leaked from equipment in a building on the site, prompting air monitoring for the chemical. A FirstEnergy Corp. spokeswoman said an undetermined amount of the chemical escaped Wednesday as workers were starting routine maintenance at a facility near the reactor building at the Perry nuclear plant along Lake Erie. The leak occurred at a building that contains charcoal beds to absorb radioactive gases. No one was hurt, but the building was deemed off-limits. Air monitors were called to check for trichloroethylene, a chemical from the refrigerant that can be a neurotoxin in high concentrations. Such problems are required to be reported to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Perry is about 35 miles northeast of Cleveland.


Biological Health Hazard – Lassa hemorrhagic Fever (LHF): Nigeria

Epidemic Hazard  – Lassa hemorrhagic Fever (LHF) Disease Outbreak

Africa - Nigeria | Oyo State,  Ibadan
Bio-hazard Level: 4/4 Hazardous
Location: N 7° 23.783, E 3° 55.000
Deaths: unknown
Infected: unknown

The University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan has expressed concern over rising cases of Lassa fever in the Oyo State capi­tal and its environs. The coordinator of the teaching hospital’s Response Team for Outbreak of Diseas­es and Emergency, Olusegun Fasina, raised the alarm in an interview with an online me­dia outfit, Witness Nigeria, at the weekend. According to him, the num­ber of patients diagnosed with Lassa fever had increased steadily in the last two months. He said the management was particularly worried about the development because the ailment belonged to the same family of hemorrhagic fever like the dreaded Ebola disease virus (EVD), which had raised global concern in recent times due to the level of fatality it had caused, es­pecially in some parts of West Africa. “Within the last two months, we have had about 80 samples suspected of hem­orrhagic fever. Out of the 80, we are having close to 27 be­ing positive. That is about 35 to 40 per cent. That is very high,” he said, while calling for urgent action to stem the tide. The response team’s spokesman said though not all the cases were from Ibadan, most of them were based in the ancient town. He explained that the UCH was able to diagnose the suf­ferers because it had state-of-the-art equipment to detect complex cases of unresolved fever in less than 24 hours, as well as well-skilled personnel to manage the situation. His words: “When the blood samples of suspected cases are taken, we put them in a cooler called ‘sample boxes’ to prevent officials taking the samples for isola­tion from being infected. We label the cooler as ‘highly in­fectious’. The sample is pro­cessed and within six hours, we have the result. “With that procedure that we have in UCH, and the re­sults we have got so far, we can say there is an increase in cases of Lassa fever in Ibadan, and by extension, the state.” Being a referral hospital, UCH, he said, only had access to cases referred to it as well as those of individuals who presented themselves after administering series of antibi­otics to battle their fever-like ailments without improve­ment in their conditions. That, Fasina added, raised higher levels of fear on what would be happening in lesser cities and villages across the state where victims may never be diagnosed even after they might have died. “Judging by what we have in Ibadan, I imagine what will be happening to my people in Saki, Sepeteri and other places in their category within the state. Hemorrhagic fever genres are easily contracted through animals, particularly the domestic ones. These people are farmers. All the bats that they say we should not eat in Ibadan are delica­cies there. You say we should not eat bush meat, but they are eating rat like anything there. And that increases the risk of being infected,” the medical microbiologist noted.

Previous Reports:

Biological Hazard in Nigeria on Friday, 20 June, 2014 at 14:12 (02:12 PM) UTC.

An outbreak of Lassa fever has killed four persons, just as 11 others are affected by the disease in Jos-North, Jos-South and Bassa Local Government Areas of Plateau State. The state Epemidiologist, Dr Raymond Juryit, who confirmed this to Daily Trust, said there was an outbreak of viral hemorrhagic Lassa fever in three local government areas and that so far, the state Ministry of Health has recorded 15 cases. He decried challenges being faced in controlling the disease, saying, “Ribavirin is the only drug for the treatment of Lassa fever, but we don’t have it right now. We usually receive them from Federal Ministry of Health every year, but we have not received any for this year yet. Doctors now resort to symptomatic treatment rather than curative treatment”. He urged residents of the affected areas to maintain high personal hygiene and environmental sanitation, saying Lassa fever spreads rapidly in dirty environments. When contacted, the state Commissioner for Health, Dr Fom Dakwak, confirmed the outbreak, adding that some affected persons are at Bingham Teaching Hospital in Jos, and in dire need of the drugs. He said: “It is true that there are no drugs in the state at the moment. We receive them from the Federal Ministry of Health and the state ministry has made several efforts to get the drugs to the patients. For the past three months, we have been trying to get the drugs from the ministry, but we have not been able to get them. Also, we cannot get the drugs in the market; they are produced by manufacturers based on orders by the Federal Ministry of Health. However, we are considering an alternative in order to arrest the situation”.


Biological Health Hazard – Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-COv): Turkey

Epidemic Hazard  – Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-COv)

Middle-East  -  Turkey | Ankara
Bio-hazard Level: 4/4 Hazardous
Location: N 39° 55.246, E 32° 51.247
Deaths: 1
Infected: 1

Sunday, 19 October, 2014 at 16:19 UTC

The Turkey Ministry of Health (MOH) has reported the first Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) fatality in a citizen who recently returned from Saudi Arabia, according to a report (computer translated). The Turkish male was suffering from respiratory problems prior to his travel to Turkey on Monday, Oct. 6. He later died at a Ankara hospital five days later. A statement from the MOH says, “Patient samples analyzed by the Ministry of Public Health Institute of Microbiology Reference Laboratory confirmed the patient was positive for the MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV).” Passengers and crew on the airline the now deceased patient traveled on are now being contacted so they can be monitored for the disease. In Saudi Arabia, a clusters of MERS has been reported the western city of Ta’if in Mecca province. In less than 5 weeks, 10 confirmed MERS cases have been reported in the city. The latest numbers from the World Health Organization shows that 877 laboratory-confirmed cases of infection with MERS-CoV have been reported, including at least 317 related deaths.

Biological Hazard in Turkey on Saturday, 18 October, 2014 at 14:48 (02:48 PM) UTC.

MoH Turkey announced the laboratory results as MERS-Cov positive for a recently dead patient in Ankara. The Turkish-originated male patient, who was an expat in Saudi Arabia, was suffering from respiratory problems prior to his travel to Turkey on 6 Oct 2014. The patient died in the hospital on 11 Oct 2014.



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