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Biological Health Hazard – Swine influenza, sub-type H3N2V (human infection): Michigan and Ohio


INFLUENZA, SWINE (04): USA (MICHIGAN, OHIO), HUMAN CASES H3N2V
**********************
Published Date: 2016-08-17 15:34:54
Subject: PRO/AH/EDR> Influenza, swine (04): USA (MI, OH), human cases H3N2V
Archive Number: 20160817.4420280

Date: 13 Aug 2016
Source: Outbreak News Today [edited]

Four human infections with influenza viruses that normally circulate in swine (swine influenza) were reported by CDC this week. When swine influenza viruses are detected in people, they are called “variant” viruses and are designated with a letter v at the end of the virus subtype. The 4 human infections were caused by H3N2v viruses in Ohio (2) and Michigan (2). All 4 patients reported attending fairs where they had exposure to pigs during the week preceding illness onset. Pigs at the fairs have reportedly tested positive for swine influenza A (H3N2) infection. The Ohio patients are not related other than that both of them reported having attended the same fair in Ohio. Similarly, the Michigan cases both attended the same fair in Michigan but are otherwise unrelated to each other.

CDC is working with state public health officials to support their human health responses and has recommendations for the public on what steps they can take to help protect against H3N2v and other swine influenza viruses.

Swine influenza is a respiratory disease of pigs caused by type A influenza viruses that cause outbreaks in pigs. Signs of swine flu in pigs can include fever, coughing (barking), sneezing, breathing difficulties, eye redness or inflammation, and not eating. Some pigs infected with influenza, however, may show no signs of illness at all.

Swine flu viruses do not normally infect people; however, sporadic human infections with these viruses have occurred. Human infections with H1N1v, H3N2v and H1N2v viruses have been detected in the United States. Spread between pigs and people is thought to happen mainly when an infected pig (or human) coughs or sneezes and droplets with influenza virus in them spread through the air. If these droplets land in the nose or mouth, or are inhaled, that person (or pig) could be infected. There also is some evidence that the virus might spread by touching something that has virus on it and then touching the mouth or nose. A 3rd way to possibly get infected is to inhale particles containing influenza virus. Influenza has not been shown to be transmissible to people through eating properly handled and prepared pork (pig meat) or other products derived from pigs.

Most commonly, human infections with variant viruses occur in people with exposure to infected pigs (e.g., at a fair or at work). Illness associated with variant virus infection includes symptoms similar to those of seasonal flu. Most illness has been mild, but as with seasonal flu, hospitalization and death can occur. There have been documented cases of multiple people becoming sick after exposure to one or more infected pigs and also cases of limited spread of variant influenza viruses from person to person.

Human infections with a non-human influenza virus should be fully investigated to be sure that such viruses are not spreading in humans in an efficient and ongoing way, and to limit further exposure of humans to infected animals if infected animals are identified. At this time, the epidemiology of the human infections reported this week seems consistent with what has been in the past. None of the most recent infections were hospitalized, and there were no deaths. CDC is conducting laboratory studies to find out more about these viruses.

Agricultural fairs take place across the United States every year, primarily during the summer months and into early fall. Many fairs have swine exhibitions, where pigs from different places come in close contact with each other and with people. These venues may magnify the risk of spread of influenza viruses between pigs and people. The number of variant virus infections reported in humans has varied from season to season. During the summer of 2012, 309 human infections with H3N2v viruses were detected. Subsequently, 19 infections of H3N2v were detected in 2013, and only 3 infections each were detected during 2014 and 2015.

Some people are at high risk of developing serious illness from variant virus infections, just as they are from seasonal influenza. This includes young children, people with underlying health conditions like asthma, diabetes or heart disease, pregnant women and people who are 65 and older. In order to reduce the possible risk of serious illness to people posed by interactions between people and pigs at fairs, CDC recommends that people at high risk for serious flu complications avoid pigs and swine barns at fairs. During the 2012 H3N2v outbreaks, 16 people were hospitalized, and one person died from H3N2v infection. Most of those people were at high risk for serious flu complications.

The 2016-2017 seasonal flu vaccine is not formulated to provide protection against H3N2v. CDC recommends annual seasonal influenza vaccination for everyone 6 months and older to protect against seasonal flu viruses. The same influenza antiviral drugs used to treat seasonal flu can be used to treat variant virus infection in children and adults. The currently recommended drugs — oseltamivir, peramivir, and zanamivir — are available by prescription only. Early treatment works better and is especially important for people who are very ill or who are at high risk of serious flu complications.

Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[The cases from Michigan mentioned in the above report have already been reported in the ProMED post “Influenza, swine (02): USA (MI) human case, H3N2v 20160807.4399461.” All the reported cases had history of exposure to pigs at fairs a few days prior to onset of illness.

It is important that the public be educated on specific exposures/risk behaviors in relation to swine that may lead to infection or risk of spread. Reinforcing the message for annual vaccination against human seasonal influenza, particularly in high risk groups, will also be helpful. – Mod.UBA

ProMED HealthMaps:
Ohio, United States: http://healthmap.org/promed/p/237
Michigan, United States: http://healthmap.org/promed/p/225]

See Also

Influenza, swine (03): USA (MI) 20160811.4408096
Influenza, swine (02): USA (MI) human case, H3N2V 20160807.4399461
Influenza, swine-origin (02): USA (WN, MN) H1N2v human cases 20160703.4323386
Influenza, swine-origin: USA (MN) human case, H1N2v 20160515.4222769
Influenza, swine: USA (MN,IA) study 20160114.3936806
Influenza, porcine – China: Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine influenza virus, pandemic potential 20160102.3904985
2015
—-
Influenza, swine (05): USA (MI,MN) novel strains, human case H3N2v 20150905.3626427
Influenza, swine (04): USA (IA) novel strains H1N1v, H3N2v, human infection 20150830.3612253
Influenza, swine (03): USA, evolutionary dynamics IAV in swine, human threat 20150806.3562409
Influenza, swine (02): USA (MN) novel strains, human infection 20150804.3556121
Influenza, swine – USA: (MN) novel strains, human case H3N2v 20150726.3537522
2014
—-
Influenza, swine – USA: novel strains, H3N1, alert 20140916.2776180
2012
—-
Influenza (101): USA (OH), A(H3N2)v, swine to human transmission 20121026.1367194
Influenza (86): swine H1N2, virulence & transmissibility in ferrets 20120912.1291427
Influenza (85): USA: (MN) swine H1N2 influenza, human cases 20120911.1290389
Influenza (65): swine influenza, A/(H3N2)v, OIE status 20120806.1229963
2011
—-
Influenza (78): USA, swine-origin H3N2 reassortants update 20111224.3669
Influenza (74): swine-origin H3N2 reassortant, vaccine candidate 20111203.3526
Influenza (72): Europe, swine-origin H3N2 reassortant, risk assessment 20111130.3494
Influenza (71): USA (IA) swine-origin H3N2 reassortant, WHO 20111125.3448
Influenza (70): USA (IA) swine-origin H3N2 reassortant 20111124.3438
Influenza (69): USA (IA) swine-origin H3N2 reassortant 20111123.3430
Influenza (68): Hong Kong swine-origin H3N2 reassortant 20111119.3411
Influenza (66): USA swine-origin H3N2 reassortant, update 20111105.3298
Influenza (63): USA (ME, NOT NH) swine-origin H3N2 reassortant 20111102.3260
Influenza (60): USA (ME) swine-origin H3N2 reassortant 20111021.3134
Influenza (54): (PA) swine-origin H3N2 reassortant, comment 20110913.2789
Influenza (52): (PA), swine-origin H3N2 reassortant, 3 cases 20110906.2723
Influenza (51): swine-origin H3N2 reassortant, children 20110902.2685
2010
—-
Influenza (14): swine origin (tr) H3N2 viruses 20101112.4117
Influenza pandemic (H1N1), animal (07): Finland, swine, OIE 20100901.3114
Influenza pandemic (H1N1) (42): reassortment, swine 20100618.2055
Influenza pandemic (H1N1), animal (06): Korea, swine 20100422.1296
Influenza H3N2, new, swine, human – USA: (IA) 20100116.0189
Influenza pandemic (H1N1) 2009, animal (01): China, swine, canine 20100101.0014
2009
—-
Influenza pandemic (H1N1) 2009, animal (42): USA (NC) swine 20091228.4372
Influenza pandemic (H1N1) 2009, animal (41): Russia (CV) swine, OIE 20091226.4353
Influenza pandemic (H1N1) 2009, animal (39): Germany, swine, OIE 20091211.4220
Influenza pandemic (H1N1) 2009, animal (38): Mexico, swine, OIE 20091211.4214
Influenza pandemic (H1N1) 2009, animal (35): Italy, swine, OIE 20091205.4144
Influenza pandemic (H1N1) 2009, animal health (31): Finland, swine, OIE 20091201.4106
Influenza pandemic (H1N1) 2009, animal health (09): Indonesia, swine 20091127.4071
Influenza pandemic (H1N1) 2009, animal (22): USA, swine 20091106.3834
Influenza pandemic (H1N1) 2009, animal (19): Iceland swine, OIE 20091028.3737
Influenza pandemic (H1N1) 2009, animal (13): USA swine, conf. 20091020.3600
Influenza pandemic (H1N1) 2009, animal (12): USA swine, susp 20091019.3592
Influenza pandemic (H1N1) 2009, animal (09): UK (NI) swine, OIE 20090918.3280
Influenza pandemic (H1N1) 2009, animal health (08): Singapore, swine 20090904.3114
Influenza pandemic (H1N1) 2009, animal health (06): Canada, swine 20090828.3027
Influenza pandemic (H1N1) 2009, animal health (05): Austr., swine 20090826.2999
Influenza pandemic (H1N1) 2009, animal health (02): Austr., swine 20090820.2951
Influenza A (H3N2), swine, human – USA: (KS) 20090808.2812
Influenza pandemic (H1N1) 2009 (22): Australia (NSW), swine 20090801.2698
Influenza pandemic (H1N1) 2009 (15): Canada (AB) swine workers 20090723.2603
Influenza pandemic (H1N1) 2009 (07): Argentina, swine, alert 20090718.2557
Influenza A (H1N1): animal health (16), Argentina, swine, OIE 20090626.2322
Influenza A (H1N1): animal health (13) swine, Canada, origin, RFI 20090615.2215
Influenza A (H1N1): animal health (12) swine trial inf. 20090605.2088
Influenza A (H1N1): animal health (11) swine trial inf. 20090604.2067
Influenza A (H1N1) – worldwide (50): swine immunity 20090528.1987
Influenza A (H1N1): animal health (10) swine, Canada, cull 20090514.1813
………………………………………….sb/uba/msp/mpp

Source:
A ProMED-mail post
ProMED-mail is a program of the International Society for Infectious Diseases


Biological Health Hazard – Elizabethkingia anophelis (fatal): Wisconsin (Update 2016-08-18)


ELIZABETHKINGIA ANOPHELIS – USA (19): (WISCONSIN) FATAL, COMMUNITY ACQUIRED
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Published Date: 2016-08-18 16:43:08
Subject: PRO/EDR> Elizabethkingia anophelis – USA (19): (WI) fatal, community acquired
Archive Number: 20160818.4422637

Date: Wed 17 Aug 2016
Source: American Council on Science and Health (ACSH) [edited]

Elizabethkingia: Is This Mysterious Disease Coming from Hospitals?
——————————————————————
Occasionally, a rare or unknown microbe rears its ugly head and causes disease in humans. Whether it is due to a previously harmless microbe mutating, a disease of animals jumping into humans, or mankind encountering new habitats (and hence, new microbes), epidemiologists lump these bugs into a broad category called “emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases.”

Some of the latest inductee into this nefarious club is the bacterium _Elizabethkingia anophelis_, named in honor of microbiologist Elizabeth King. The microbe is common in the environment, initially found in the guts of _Anopheles_ mosquitoes [_A. gambiae_ – Mod.LL]. There are 4 known species, but the most problematic for humans appears to be _E. anophelis_, which is resistant to multiple antimicrobials. According to the CDC, the bacterium is responsible for at least 20 deaths in an ongoing outbreak in the American Midwest, mostly [in Wisconsin – Mod.LL] among elderly people with poor health. Currently, no one has identified the source of the outbreak.

In order to gain a better understanding of these enigmatic bacteria, a group of mostly French researchers sequenced the genomes of 2 _E. anophelis_ isolates from Central African Republic that caused meningitis in newborn infants. Then, they compared these sequences with those already known from other _Elizabethkingia_ isolates elsewhere in the world. Their results were reported in the journal Scientific Reports.

The authors used the genome sequences to build a phylogenetic tree (think: family tree), from which they inferred both evolutionary relationships as well as potential geographical histories of the isolates. This genomic analysis divides _E. anophelis_ into 2 lineages, A and B. Lineage A, which contains the African samples (sublineage 5), also contains sublineages isolated from Hong Kong (sublineage 4) and Singapore (sublineage 2), as well as from mosquitoes (sublineage 1). The phylogenetic tree suggests that sublineages 1, 4, and 5 are most closely related, which means the African samples are closest to those strains isolated from Hong Kong and from mosquitoes.

But, the African isolates almost certainly did not come from mosquitoes, since they were collected from newborn babies who were on ventilators in the hospital. Furthermore, some of the strains in sublineages 2 and 3 were also taken from a hospital environment. The authors worry that, despite being associated with mosquitoes and the environment, _Elizabethkingia_ can be transmitted in hospitals, just like several other nasty microbes [including the organism initially called _Flavobacterium meningosepticum_ now _E. meningoseptica_ which cannot be easily differentiated from _E. anophelis_- Mod.LL]. Given its resistance to multiple antimicrobials, that is not a welcome discovery. Midwestern public health officials should take note.

Source: Breurec, S. et al. Genomic epidemiology and global diversity of the emerging bacterial pathogen Elizabethkingia anophelis. Sci. Rep. 6, 30379; doi: 10.1038/srep30379 (2016).

[Byline: Alex Berezow]


Communicated by:
ProMED-mail from HealthMap Alerts
<promed@promedmail.org>

[The latest Wisconsin count remains at 67 total and has not changed since June 2016 (https://www.dhs.wisconsin.gov/disease/elizabethkingia.htm):

Wisconsin 2016 _E. anophelis_ outbreak:
Case counts between 1 Nov 2015 and 17 Aug 2016
———————————————-
Confirmed = 63
Under investigation = 0
Possible cases = 4
Total cases reported to Wisconsin DPH = 67

Affected counties include Columbia, Dane, Dodge, Fond du Lac, Jefferson, Milwaukee, Ozaukee, Racine, Sheboygan, Washington, Waukesha, and Winnebago.

There have been 18 deaths among individuals with confirmed _E. anophelis_ infections and an additional one death among possible cases for a total of 19 deaths. It has not been determined if these deaths were caused by the infection or other serious pre-existing health problems. Counties where these deaths occurred are: Columbia, Dodge, Fond du Lac, Milwaukee, Ozaukee, Racine, Sheboygan, Washington, and Waukesha.

This investigation is ongoing. Case counts may change as additional illnesses are identified and more cases are laboratory confirmed.

The possible cases are cases that tested positive for _Elizabethkingia_, but will never be confirmed as the same strain of _E. anophelis_ because the outbreak specimens are no longer available to test.

The report cited and a parallel more clinical one are shown below with their abstracts but none of the isolates are from North America:

Breurec S, Criscuolo A, Diancourt L, et al: Genomic epidemiology and global diversity of the emerging bacterial pathogen Elizabethkingia anophelis. Sci Rep. 2016 Jul 27;6:30379. doi: 10.1038/srep30379

Abstract
——–
_Elizabethkingia anophelis_ is an emerging pathogen involved in human infections and outbreaks in distinct world regions. We investigated the phylogenetic relationships and pathogenesis-associated genomic features of 2 neonatal meningitis isolates isolated 5 years apart from one hospital in Central African Republic and compared them with _Elizabethkingia_ from other regions and sources. Average nucleotide identity firmly confirmed that _E. anophelis_, _E. meningoseptica_ and _E. miricola_ represent demarcated genomic species. A core genome multilocus sequence typing scheme, broadly applicable to _Elizabethkingia_ species, was developed and made publicly available (http://bigsdb.pasteur.fr/elizabethkingia). Phylogenetic analysis revealed distinct E. anophelis sublineages and demonstrated high genetic relatedness between the African isolates, compatible with persistence of the strain in the hospital environment. CRISPR spacer variation between the African isolates was mirrored by the presence of a large mobile genetic element. The pan-genome of _E. anophelis_ comprised 6880 gene families, underlining genomic heterogeneity of this species. African isolates carried unique resistance genes acquired by horizontal transfer. We demonstrated the presence of extensive variation of the capsular polysaccharide synthesis gene cluster in _E. anophelis_. Our results demonstrate the dynamic evolution of this emerging pathogen and the power of genomic approaches for _Elizabethkingia_ identification, population biology and epidemiology.

Lau SK, Chow WN, Foo CH, et al: Elizabethkingia anophelis bacteremia is associated with clinically significant infections and high mortality. Sci Rep. 2016 May 17;6:26045. doi: 10.1038/srep26045

Abstract
——–
Unlike _Elizabethkingia meningoseptica_, the clinical importance of _E. anophelis_ is poorly understood. We determined the clinical and molecular epidemiology of bacteremia caused by _Elizabethkingia_-like species from 5 regional hospitals in Hong Kong. Among 45 episodes of _Elizabethkingia_-like bacteremia, 21 were caused by _Elizabethkingia_, including 17 _E. anophelis_, 3 _E. meningoseptica_ and one _E. miricola_; while 24 were caused by other diverse genera/species, as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Of the 17 cases of _E. anophelis_ bacteremia, 15 (88 percent) were clinically significant. The most common diagnosis was pneumonia (n = 5), followed by catheter-related bacteremia (n = 4), neonatal meningitis (n = 3), nosocomial bacteremia (n = 2) and neutropenic fever (n = 1). _E. anophelis_ bacteremia was commonly associated with complications and carried 23.5 percent mortality. In contrast, of the 24 episodes of bacteremia due to non-_Elizabethkingia_ species, 16 (67 percent) were clinically insignificant. Compared to non-_Elizabethkingia_ bacteremia, _Elizabethkingia_ bacteremia was associated with more clinically significant infections (P less than 0.01) and positive cultures from other sites (P less than 0.01), less polymicrobial bacteremia (P less than 0.01), and higher complication (P less than 0.05) and mortality (P less than 0.05) rates. _Elizabethkingia_ bacteremia is predominantly caused by _E. anophelis_ instead of _E. meningoseptica_. _Elizabethkingia_ bacteremia, especially due to _E. anophelis_, carries significant morbidity and mortality, and should be considered clinically significant unless proven otherwise.

In the May/June 2016 issue of Genetic Announcements, 4 of the North American 2015-2016 outbreak strains had complete genetic sequencing done. A number of reassortment configurations were found (Nicholson AC, Whitney AM, Emery BD, et al: Complete genome sequences of four strains from the 2015-2016 Elizabethkingia anopheles outbreak. Genome Annouc 2016;4 (3):e00563-16 doi:10.1128/genomeA.00563-16). – Mod.LL

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at: http://healthmap.org/promed/p/250.]

See Also

Elizabethkingia anophelis – USA (18): (WI) fatal, community acquired 20160622.4302947
Elizabethkingia anophelis – USA (17): (WI) fatal, community acq 20160611.4277339
Elizabethkingia anophelis – USA (16): (WI) fatal, community acquired 20160505.4203699
Elizabethkingia anophelis – USA (15): (WI) possible neonatal case 20160429.4190297
Elizabethkingia anophelis – USA (14): (WI) fatal, community acquired 20160427.4187853
Elizabethkingia anophelis – USA (13): (WI,IL) fatal, community acq 20160422.4176668
Elizabethkingia anophelis – USA (12): (WI,IL) fatal, community acq 20160421.4174417
Elizabethkingia anophelis – USA (11): (WI) fatal, community acq 20160415.4162001
Elizabethkingia anophelis – USA (10): (WI, IL) fatal, community acquired 20160413.4158063
Elizabethkingia anophelis – USA (09): (WI) fatal, community acquired 20160408.4146997
Elizabethkingia anophelis – USA (08): (WI) fatal, community acquired 20160331.4129125
Elizabethkingia anophelis – USA (07): (WI,MI) fatal, community acq 20160324.4116626
Elizabethkingia anophelis – USA (06): (WI,MI) fatal, community acq 20160322.4110826
Elizabethkingia anophelis – USA (05): (WI,MI) fatal, community acquired 20160318.4104623
Elizabethkingia anophelis – USA (04): (WI) fatal, community acquired 20160317.4099438
Elizabethkingia anophelis – USA (03): (WI) fatal, community acquired 20160311.4083895
Elizabethkingia anophelis – USA (02): (WI) fatal, community acq., comment, RFI 20160309.4080818
Elizabethkingia anophelis – USA: (WI) fatalities, community acquired, RFI 20160303.4067424
………………………………………….sb/ll/je/mpp

Source:
A ProMED-mail post
ProMED-mail is a program of the International Society for Infectious Diseases


Biological Health Hazard – Campylobacteriosis: New Zealand, Hawke’s Bay region


CAMPYLOBACTERIOSIS – NEW ZEALAND: (HAWKE’S BAY) WATERBORNE
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Published Date: 2016-08-17 13:25:33
Subject: PRO/AH/EDR> Campylobacteriosis – New Zealand: (HB) waterborne
Archive Number: 20160817.4422479

Date: Tue 16 Aug 2016 2:37 PM (GMT+12)
Source: News Hub [edited]

Havelock North [in Hastings, North Island’s Hawke’s Bay region] residents have been told the taste and smell of chlorine in their tap water won’t go away, with authorities confirming today [16 Aug 2016] it will be added to the water supply indefinitely. It’s another blow to the community that has already had 2000 of them struck down with gastrointestinal illness, caused by contaminated water. The Hastings District Council says it’s investigating how the town’s water got contaminated with _Campylobacter_, and it’s also on the search for new potential water supplies.

To date, 22 people are in hospital with gastroenteritis illness, and 1 remains in a critical but stable condition. There are now 62 confirmed and 129 probable cases of campylobacteriosis.

The council is conducting phone surveys of Havelock North residents to assess how many people are affected and what additional help they might need. “Extra support from district nurses has also been provided to rest homes in the area who are reporting increased illness,” the council said in a statement. A boil notice remains in place until authorities are confident there is no other bug resistant to the chlorination in the water.

Dozens of Red Cross and Civil Defence officers were pounding the pavement in Hawke’s Bay on [Tue 16 Aug 2016], checking on residents affected by the outbreak. Many people have come down with violent vomiting and diarrhea since the Havelock North water supply was contaminated, and some are too sick to leave their homes.

Graeme Langford, disaster management officer for the Red Cross, says teams will offer emergency supplies such as food and toilet paper. “They’ll be on foot in the area going door to door,” he says. “It should take them most of the day to get that work done, and where we identify some need, then we will be able to help out.”

Prime Minister John Key says there will be an inquiry into what caused the outbreak, and the Ministry of Health will be involved, but the current priority is preventing it from spreading further. Labor leader Andrew Little says he’s waiting to see what assistance the Government provides to the Hawke’s Bay community. “This is simply not something that should be happening in the 21st century in New Zealand,” says Mr Little.

[Byline: Adrien Taylor]


Communicated by:
ProMED-mail from HealthMap Alerts
<promed@promedmail.org>

[Maps of New Zealand can be seen at https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dc/NZTerritorialAuthorities.png and http://healthmap.org/promed/p/54848.

As implied in the post, contamination of municipal water can be from multiple pathogens, including viruses such as norovirus and rotavirus, bacteria such as _Salmonella_, _E. coli_, and _Campylobacter_, and protozoa such as _Cryptosporidium_ and _Giardia_.

An example of a past outbreak of campylobacteriosis in Finland is cited below:

Kuusi M, Nuorti JP, Hänninen ML, et al: A large outbreak of campylobacteriosis associated with a municipal water supply in Finland. Epidemiol Infect. 2005; 133(4): 593-601; https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2870285/

Abstract
——–
In August 1998, an outbreak of campylobacteriosis occurred in one municipality in northern Finland. A 10 percent random sample of residents (population 15 000) was selected through the National Population Registry for a survey conducted by using postal questionnaires. Cases were defined as residents of the municipality with onset of acute gastroenteritis from 1 to 20 August 1998. Of 1167 respondents (response rate 78 percent), 218 (18.7 percent) met the case definition. Drinking non-chlorinated municipal tap water was strongly associated with illness (OR 34.4). The estimated total number of ill persons was 2700. _Campylobacter jejuni_ was isolated from stool samples of 45 (61 percent) out of 74 patients tested. All 5 isolates tested had indistinguishable PFGE [pulsed-field gel electrophoresis] patterns. Water samples were negative for campylobacter and coliforms. Epidemiological and environmental evidence suggested mains repair as the source of contamination. Non-chlorinated ground-water systems may be susceptible to contamination and can cause large outbreaks.
– Mod.LL]

See Also

Campylobacteriosis – USA: (UT) unpasteurized milk, 2014 20160401.4131443

2015
—-
Campylobacteriosis, E. coli EHEC – USA (02): (ID) unpasteurized milk 20151030.3755260
Campylobacteriosis, E. coli EHEC – USA: (ID) unpasteurized milk, recall 20151022.3735320
Campylobacteriosis – USA (02): (CA) raw goat milk 20150606.3415757
Campylobacteriosis – USA: (CA) unpasteurized milk 20150327.3258683

2014
—-
Campylobacteriosis – UK (02): chicken packaging, alert 20141125.2988592
Campylobacteriosis – USA (07): (SD) raw milk 20141124.2986579
Campylobacteriosis – USA (06): (WI) raw milk 20141025.2901058
Campylobacteriosis – USA (05): (WI) 20141001.2817542
Campylobacteriosis – USA (04): (WI) 20140926.2805165
Campylobacteriosis – USA (03): (UT) unpasteurized milk 20140827.2727937
Campylobacteriosis – Iceland 20140806.2662451
Campylobacteriosis – UK: (Scotland) barbecued poultry 20140719.2620444
Campylobacteriosis – USA (02): (NV) race participants, 2012 20140501.2443247
Campylobacteriosis – New Zealand: (CA) unpasteurized milk 20140329.2365370

2013
—-
Campylobacteriosis, E. coli EHEC – New Zealand: raw milk 20130802.1860208
………………………………………….sb/ll/mj/mpp

Source:
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ProMED-mail is a program of the International Society for Infectious Diseases


Tree-rings reveal secret clocks that could reset key dates across the ancient world — Watts Up With That?


Trees which grew during intense radiation bursts in the past have ‘time-markers’ in their tree-rings that could help archaeologists date events from thousands of years ago Oxford University researchers say that trees which grew during intense radiation bursts in the past have ‘time-markers’ in their tree-rings that could help archaeologists date events from thousands […]

via Tree-rings reveal secret clocks that could reset key dates across the ancient world — Watts Up With That?

Nuclear Event – RCS leakage (Emergency Declared): Prairie Island Nuclear Power Plant – Unit 1, Minnesota


North America – USA | State of Minnesota, Welch, Prairie Island Nuclear Power Plant
Location: 44°37’18.0″N 92°37’59.0″W
Present Operational Age: ~44 years
Event: UNUSUAL EVENT – EMERGENCY DECLARED

Nuclear Event in USA on Saturday, 13 August, 2016 at 23:59 [CDT].

UNUSUAL EVENT DECLARED DUE TO EXCESSIVE REACTOR COOLANT SYSTEM LEAKAGE

Prairie Island Unit 1 declared an Unusual Event at 2359 CDT on 8/13/2016 based on Reactor Coolant System (RCS) identified leakage being greater than 25 gpm. The RCS leakage was 40 gpm for three (3) minutes. The RCS leakage was stopped when letdown flow was isolated. Minimum charging flow has been established and Excess Letdown was placed in service. Prairie Island Unit 1 is currently stable and continues to operate at 100 percent power. There was no impact on Prairie Island Unit 2.

“CV-31339 (Letdown Line Containment Isolation Valve) failed closed. VC-26-1 (Regenerative Heat Exchanger Letdown Line Outlet Relief to Pressurizer Relief Tank [PRT]) lifted with 40 gallons per minute to the PRT for three (3) Minutes. Operators entered procedure 1C12.1 AOP3, Loss of Letdown Flow to VCT. Letdown was isolated per 1C12.1 AOP3, relief valve VC-26-1 reseated and leakage to the PRT stopped. Charging flow was reduced to one (1) charging pump at minimum speed (16 GPM). Excess letdown was placed in service to maintain pressurizer level between 32 – 34 percent. The cause for CV-31339 closing has not yet been determined.

“The NRC Resident Inspector has been notified.”

Notified DHS SWO, FEMA Ops Center, DHS NICC. Notified FEMA National Watch and Nuclear SSA via E-mail.

* * * UPDATE FROM PAUL FINHOLM TO DONALD NORWOOD AT 0525 EDT ON 8/14/2016 * * *

“At 0329 CDT the Notice of Unusual Event was terminated based on confirmation that conditions meet all termination criteria. RCS conditions are stable. RCS leakage is less than Technical Specification limits. The current value [of RCS identified leakage] is 0.038 gpm. No classification criteria is currently met.

“The NRC Resident Inspector has been notified.”

Notified R3DO (Kozak), NRR EO (Miller), and IRD (Stapleton). Notified DHS SWO, FEMA Ops Center, DHS NICC. Notified FEMA National Watch and Nuclear SSA via E-mail.

Source: NRC  Event Number: 52178

“What you do not wish for yourself, do not do to others” – Confucius


Useful Idiots broadcasting profound ignorance:

Lot of focus on one death in Milwaukee, not a lot on the continual carnage that is Obama’s home town. As 9 Killed, 43 Wounded In Weekend Shootings Across Chicago

—————

Milwaukee Rioter: Rich People Got All This Money… ‘Don’t Give Us None’ – So We Burn Gas Stations (Video)

Sunday, August 14, 2016

(Excerpt)

Rioters Torched Several Milwaukee Businesses on Saturday Night– (Photo)

The rioters also targeted white people for beatdowns.

One protester said rich people got all this money “and they not trying to give us none. (Photo)

Protester: “It’s sad, because you know, this what happened because they not helping the black community, like you know, the rich people, they got all this money, and they, like not trying to give us none.”

Via Paul Joseph Watson:

#BlackLivesMatter rioters target whites: “They beating up all the white people.” #Milwaukee pic.twitter.com/G85jnYtd3k

[Byline Jim Hoft]

See full article @ theGatewayPundit.com

Related

Shock Video–Milwaukee Rioters: ‘They Beatin’ Up Every White Person!’

Milwaukee Blacks Attack Whites Because “The Rich People Are Not Trying To Give Us None”

Reality Check: “Elections have consequences.” and “We won.”

Reality Check

Since President Obama was elected, black Americans may have seen their joblessness decline – but since President Obama was elected, income inequality for black Americans has soared… Image: ZeroHedge

Fact: Rioting is not the way to unity or prosperity.

——————————

Stupid is as stupid does — Forrest Gump

Technological Hazard – Fire: St. Clair Hydroelectric Power Plant, East China Township, Michigan


North America – USA | State of Michigan, East China Township – St. Clair Hydroelectric Power Plant
Location: 42°45’52.0″N 82°28’21.0″W
Present Operational Age: ~63 years
Event: FIRE/EMERGENCY DECLARED

St. Clair Power Plant in East China Michigan.

St. Clair Power Plant in East China Township, Michigan. Image: Wikipedia, File: DTE St Clair.jpg

Cause of massive fire at St. Clair Power Plant under investigation

Sunday, August 14, 2016
The Voice

Authorities are investigating the cause of a massive fire that raged for more than 10 hours at the St. Clair Power Plant in East China Township Thursday and Friday.

The fire broke out at the DTE plant on Recor Road at about 6:30 p.m. Thursday. Fire crews extinguished the blaze at about 4:45 a.m. Friday and continue to monitor the facility for rekindling.

All employees were evacuated from the building with no injuries reported.

DTE teams invoked emergency procedures and shut down all generating units at the site while working with first responders to control the situation, the energy company stated in a release.

Although no immediate threat to the surrounding area is expected, air monitoring systems that were put in place at 8:30 p.m. Friday will continue to take readings to ensure air quality is within normal limits. As of Friday afternoon, readings continued to be within normal limits outside the facility perimeter.

Small radioactive sources used in level gauges are present in piping inside the facility, but pose no threat to first responders or the public, St. Clair County officials stated in a press release. Monitoring of all hazardous materials that could pose a threat will continue throughout the response.

DTE customers are not expected to see any changes in their electric service.

The plant will remain closed, although limited access will be given to DTE and investigators while they work to determine the cause of the fire and the extent of the damage. The 294 employees will be re-assigned to other DTE facilities.

The plant, which went online in 1954, was already set to be taken off-line by 2023. It is unknown if or when the plant will reopen.

A stretch of M-29 near the power plant was reopened Friday morning after being closed to traffic following the blaze. A safety zone established in the St. Clair River remained.

A call from a facility employee brought the St. Clair Fire Department to the scene, along with 30 other area fire departments, including crews from the Canadian side of the border.

“We want to thank the various fire departments in the area for the quick response and action, and the community for its support,” DTE stated in a release.

[Byline Pamela Binsfeld]


St. Clair Power Plant fire 80 percent under control

Thursday, August 11, 2016
Times Herald

(Excerpt)

Between 80 and 100 firefighters from about 30 fire departments from throughout the county responded to the scene at 4901 Pointe Drive. The fire was reported shortly before 6:30 p.m.

About 50 employees were in the plant at the time, all escaped without injury. Laure said they were out within five minutes, following emergency plans the company already has in place.

The fire was caused by a generation unit catching fire, according to a statement from DTE Energy. There are six turbine units in the plant.

“Employees were evacuated immediately and safely. At this time, there are no known injuries at the facility,” according to the statement.

[Byline Jackie Smith]

Read more


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