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“In the end, more then freedom, they wanted security. They wanted a comfortable life, and they lost it all — security, comfort, and freedom. When the Athenians finally wanted not to give to society but for society to give to them, when the freedom they wished for the most was freedom from responsibility, then the Athenians ceased to be free and were never free again.”

“History is indeed little more than the register of the crimes, follies, and misfortunes of mankind.”

~ Edward Gibbon
  1. the state or process that occurs when no more of something can be absorbed, combined with, or added.
    2. to a very full extent, especially beyond the point regarded as necessary or desirable.

More “triggers” or something

The U.S. Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals decided Wednesday that the 90 year old cross-shaped Bladensburg World War I Veterans Memorial is unconstitutional and must come down.

The Bladensburg Memorial, located in Bladensburg Park, Md., has honored the sacrifices of 49 men from the Bladensburg area who died during World War I since 1925, but a three-judge panel ruled 2-1 in favor of the American Humanist Association and other plaintiffs that the cross-shaped monument violates the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment. The memorial is located on public land and requires thousands of dollars in public funds to maintain.

Even though the Memorial has been in place for 90 years… Specifically, the judges now stated that the memorial “has the primary effect of endorsing religion and excessively entangles the government in religion.”

“The Latin cross is the core symbol of Christianity,” the judges added.

(Edited excerpt)

Continue reading…

The Daily Caller
18 October 2017

Could any different conclusion be expected?

Dark City

Dark City – The zenith of Statism.


The psychopolitician has the advantage of naming as a delusory symptom any attempt on the part of a subject to expose commands. The psychopolitician has his reward in the nearly unlimited control of populaces, in the uninhibited exercise of passion, and the glory of Communist conquest over the stupidity of the enemies of the People. […]

History teaches that investment in cherished group and religious values can bring forth acts of both heroic valor and horrific injustice. Understanding the psychological and biological determinants of increases in ideological commitment may ultimately help us to identify the situational triggers of, and individuals most susceptible to, this phenomenon, and thereby gain some leverage over the zealous acts that follow. …The results provide evidence that relatively abstract personal and social attitudes are susceptible to targeted neuromodulation, opening the way for researchers to not only describe the biological mechanisms undergirding high-level attitudes and beliefs, but also to establish causality via experimental intervention.

— Satel, Sally, and Scott O. Lilienfeld. Brainwashed: The seductive appeal of mindless neuroscience. Basic Books, 2013.

The ideological root of statism (or collectivism) is the tribal premise of primordial savages who, unable to conceive of individual rights, believed that the tribe is a supreme, omnipotent ruler, that it owns the lives of its members and may sacrifice them whenever it pleases to whatever it deems to be its own “good.” Unable to conceive of any social principles, save the rule of brute force, they believed that the tribe’s wishes are limited only by its physical power and that other tribes are its natural prey, to be conquered, looted, enslaved, or annihilated. The history of all primitive peoples is a succession of tribal wars and intertribal slaughter. That this savage ideology now rules nations armed with nuclear weapons, should give pause to anyone concerned with mankind’s survival.

Statism is a system of institutionalized violence and perpetual civil war. It leaves men no choice but to fight to seize political power—to rob or be robbed, to kill or be killed. When brute force is the only criterion of social conduct, and unresisting surrender to destruction is the only alternative, even the lowest of men, even an animal—even a cornered rat—will fight. There can be no peace within an enslaved nation.

The degree of statism in a country’s political system, is the degree to which it breaks up the country into rival gangs and sets men against one another. When individual rights are abrogated, there is no way to determine who is entitled to what; there is no way to determine the justice of anyone’s claims, desires, or interests. The criterion, therefore, reverts to the tribal concept of: one’s wishes are limited only by the power of one’s gang.

“Anyone who is ‘triggered’ by fictional violence will not be able to function in the real world.”

Cambridge students receive ‘trigger warnings’ for Shakespeare plays

English literature undergrads at Cambridge University were warned about a lecture on two plays by William Shakespeare that would include references to sexual violence and sexual assault. The warnings were intended to give students who may be upset about those topics an excuse to miss the lecture.


David Crilly, artistic director at The Cambridge Shakespeare Festival, said: “If a student of English Literature doesn’t know that Titus Andronicus contains scenes of violence they shouldn’t be on the course.

“This degree of sensitivity will inevitably curtail academic freedom. If the academic staff are concerned they might say something students find uncomfortable they will avoid doing it.” — via Independent

Shakespeare? Perhaps someone might explain how anyone can get a degree in English literature without completely absorbing The Bard’s plays and sonnets. The plays themselves are the retelling of legends and myths that most of Shakespeare’s contemporaries were familiar with. But from our perspective and the distance of time, the lessons and values that Shakespeare was highlighting represent the best that western civilization has to offer.

And that’s the real problem, isn’t it? Trigger warnings aside, this is just another episode in the assault on our shared civilization. To destroy western civilization means destroying the culture that nurtured it. Making Shakespeare unavailable is another nail in the coffin put by those whose job should be to protect it.


[Byline Rick Moran]

19 October 2017
American Thinker (edited)


A WellRounded Education. In addition to developing academic skills, much of the public expects schools to furnish students with experiences that nurture aptitude in critical thinking, problem solving, teamwork, etc. Further, schools are also expected to include arts, music, and other enrichments within their curriculum …

Biological Hazard – (Health Alert) Cyclosporiasis Outbreak: U.S. Nationwide

CDC still stumped on source of Cyclospora; victims top 1,000

With more than 1,000 victims confirmed since May 1, the so-called seasonal outbreak of cyclospora in the United States has slowed down, but officials say more people are expected to get sick — and they have not identified the source of the parasite.

Investigators at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have identified victims in 40 states, but they are not sure if there is one big outbreak or multiple outbreaks, according to the agency’s most recent update.

As of mid-day Sept. 27, the CDC had laboratory confirmation of 1,054 people with infections from the Cyclospora parasite. The most recent illness onset reported was Sept. 13. However, people who became ill after Aug. 16 might not have been reported yet because of the time it takes between when a person becomes ill and when lab tests are completed and reported.

“At this time, no specific vehicle of interest has been identified, and investigations to identify a potential source, or sources, of infection are ongoing. It is too early to say whether cases of Cyclospora infection in different states are related to each other or to the same food item(s),” according to the CDC update.

Previous U.S. outbreaks of cyclosporiasis have been linked to various types of imported fresh produce — e.g., basil, cilantro, mesclun lettuce, raspberries, snow peas. Consumers should continue to enjoy the health benefits of eating fresh fruits and vegetables as part of a well-balanced diet. Consumers and retailers should always follow safe produce handling recommendations.”

It usually takes about a week after ingesting Cyclospora parasites for symptoms of cyclosporiasis infection to develop. The parasite infects the small intestine and usually causes watery diarrhea, with frequent, sometimes explosive, bowel movements.

Other common symptoms include loss of appetite, weight loss, stomach cramps/pain, bloating, increased gas, nausea, and fatigue. Vomiting, body aches, headache, fever, and other flu-like symptoms may be noted. Some people who are infected with Cyclospora do not have any symptoms.

If not treated, the illness may last from a few days to a month or longer. Symptoms often may seem to go away and then return one or more times. It’s common for infected people to feel very tired.

01 October 2017
Food Safety News (edited)



Infection with the parasite _Cyclospora cayetanensis_ is through the fecal oral route and is generally transmitted via  foodborne or waterborne contamination. Swimming or bathing in contaminated water may also cause infection. There is no known animal reservoir so Cyclospora infection is most probably transmitted when the pathogen contained in human feces is used to fertilize fresh agricultural products or makes its way into water sources used for human consumption.

Cyclospora has been implicated in numerous outbreaks in North America; contaminated fruits and vegetables being the common culprits (such as, basil, cilantro, mesclun lettuce, raspberries, and snow peas), especially those imported from Mexico and other developing nations.

Cyclosporiasis is an intestinal illness caused by consuming food or water contaminated with the microscopic cyclospora parasite. The main symptom is watery diarrhea lasting a several days to a few months. Additional symptoms may include loss of appetite, fatigue, weight loss, abdominal cramps, bloating, increased gas, nausea, vomiting, and a low fever. Left untreated, symptoms may come and go multiple times over a period of weeks or months.

All fruits and vegetables should be thoroughly washed before eating though this does not guarantee safety. Cyclospora is resistant to chlorination. Treatment is usually successful after a course of the antibiotic Septra [trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole].

See Also

Published Date: 2017-08-15 10:41:34
Subject: PRO/EDR> Cyclosporiasis – USA (03): nationwide increase, alert
Archive Number: 20170815.5250731

Date: Mon 7 Aug 2017 2:00 PM ET
Source: CDC, Health Alert Network, HAN-00405 [edited]

Increase in reported cases of _Cyclospora cayetanensis_ infection, USA, summer 2017

Biological Hazard – Cholera Outbreak/Fatal Rotavirus Diarrheal Epidemic (Update) 2017/10/17: Africa

Published Date: 2017-10-18 13:00:33
Subject: PRO/EDR> Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (120): Africa
Archive Number: 20171018.5388369

In this update:
[1] Cholera – Sudan
[2] Cholera – Zambia (Lusaka)
[3] Cholera – Angola (Zaire)

[1] Cholera – Sudan
Date: Tue 17 Oct 2017
Source: AllAfrica, Radio Dabanga report [edited]

The total number of reported cases of ‘acute watery diarrhea’ [AWD] across 18 states of Sudan has reached over 35 000 people — including 800 related deaths since August 2016 — according to the latest update from the WHO and the Sudanese Ministry of Health. “The outbreak is affecting all demographics, with females constituting 54 percent of the cases and children below 5 years of age accounting for 8 percent,” the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) reported in its latest bi-weekly bulletin. Acute watery diarrhea (AWD) is the term the Sudanese government and international humanitarian organisations active in Sudan, have referred to.

The bulletin continues that “active transmission of AWD is ongoing in all 18 states of Sudan with the exception of West Kordofan and Northern states, where the last reported cases were on 13 Aug 2017 and 12 Sep 2017, respectively.

“The source of infection is believed to be contaminated open water sources combined with poor sanitation and hygiene practices. The report indicated that the case fatality ratio, which peaked [at the end of August 2017] at 4.75 percent, has come down to 1.53 percent.”

Sudan’s first cases of cholera were recorded in Blue Nile state in August 2016. Since then, the disease spread in eastern Sudan, and later to the Northern State and central Sudan’s El Gezira. In April 2017, sources in White Nile state reported a rapid spread of cholera. The disease then spread to North Kordofan, and fully hit Khartoum in May 2017. Throughout Sudan medical sources and people who have volunteered in campaigns to combat the spread of cholera regularly report on the number of cholera victims in specific areas.

Human rights and civil society advocates, organisations, and activists have written in a letter to the WHO to quickly intervene and effectively address the cholera epidemic in Sudan after Khartoum would declare the existence of cholera in the country. The organisation has not replied to Radio Dabanga’s repeated requests to elaborate on this position.

The WHO, as well as the United Nations Children’s Fund (Unicef) are responding to the ‘acute watery diarrhea’ disease by establishing health facilities in a number of Sudan’s affected states, and training medical staff, a recent humanitarian news bulletin reported.

Communicated by:

[In some countries in east Africa, acute watery diarrhea is used as a euphemism for cholera.

The Sudan or Sudan, also known as North Sudan since South Sudan’s independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan, is a country in Northern Africa. It is bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea, Eritrea and Ethiopia to the east, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the southwest, Chad to the west, and Libya to the northwest. It is the 3rd largest country in Africa and can found on a map at Maps of the country can be seen at and – Mod.LL]

[2] Cholera – Zambia (Lusaka)
Date: Mon 16 Oct 2017
Source: Times of Zambia [edited]

The number of cholera cases in Lusaka, where one death has so far been reported in the recent outbreak, has reached 69, with the source of the outbreak being attributed to contaminated water. Kanyama cholera treatment centre has the highest number of cholera patients standing at 25.

Ministry of Health Permanent Secretary for administration Kennedy Malama said the number had shot up from 37 previously reported on 12 Oct 2017. “Yes, the number of patients has increased, but in terms of their condition, we are describing all of them as being stable. The update as of today [15 Oct 2017] is that on our line-list, we have a total of 69 cholera patients,” he told journalists after tour of Bauleni and Kanyama Cholera treatment centres. Dr Malama said about 70 percent of the cholera patients were children under the age of 5. At Kanyama cholera treatment centre, there were 25 patients undergoing treatment while at Bauleni clinic only 1 patient was admitted.

Dr Malama, however, said from yesterday’s [15 Oct 2017] treatment of the patients, there was significant improvement as all of them were in a stable condition, citing the children who were able to suck from their mothers, which was a positive gesture. Dr Malama was confident that from the intensified treatments by health workers, the majority of patients could be discharged soon.

On its part, the Ministry of Health would continue with health promotions and distribution of chlorine for chlorination of drinking water. Dr Malama advised people to take precautions such using chlorine or boiling water for drinking to reduce the risk of cholera breaking out.

He hailed stakeholders working closely with the ministry to fight cholera, but called for provision of more assistance citing chlorine.

One death, of a 3-month-old baby, has been reported so far.

In 2016, 1170 cumulative cases of cholera were reported in Zambia of which 192 were laboratory-confirmed with 31 deaths reported.

Communicated by:

[Zambia, officially the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country in Southern Africa, neighboring the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia to the south, and Angola to the west. The capital city is Lusaka, in the south-central part of Zambia. Maps of Zambia can be seen at and – Mod.LL]

[3] Cholera – Angola (Zaire)
Date: Sat 14 Oct 2017
Source: Angola Online [in Portuguese, machine trans., edited]

According to information from the health authorities of Zaire, of the more than 60 islands inhabited in the province, of a total of 120, most are affected by the outbreak of cholera that has killed at least 15 people out of 214 registered cases.

The lack of clean water on the islands and poor housing conditions are pointed out by the health authorities of the province of Zaire as the causes of the outbreak, so last week campaigned for mobilization and awareness, and distributed filters to purify water.

Communicated by:

[Maps of the West African country of Angola can be seen at and Zaire province is located in the extreme northwest of the country.

The mortality from cholera and most diarrheal illnesses is related to non-replacement of fluid and electrolytes from the diarrheal illness.

As stated in Lutwick LI, Preis J, Choi P: Cholera. In: Chronic illness and disability: the pediatric gastrointestinal tract. Greydanus DE, Atay O, Merrick J (eds). NY: Nova Bioscience, 2017 (in press), oral rehydration therapy can be life-saving in outbreaks of cholera and other forms of diarrhea:

“As reviewed by Richard Guerrant et al (1), it was in 1831 that cholera treatment could be accomplished by intravenous replacement, and, although this therapy could produce dramatic improvements, not until 1960 was it 1st recognized that there was no true destruction of the intestinal mucosa, and gastrointestinal rehydration therapy could be effective, and the therapy could dramatically reduce the intravenous needs for rehydration. Indeed, that this rehydration could be just as effective given orally as through an orogastric tube (for example, refs 2 and 3) made it possible for oral rehydration therapy (ORT) to be used in rural remote areas and truly impact on the morbidity and mortality of cholera. Indeed, Guerrant et al (1) highlights the use of oral glucose-salt packets in war-torn Bangladeshi refugees, which reduced the mortality rate from 30 percent to 3.6 percent (4) and quotes sources referring to ORT as “potentially the most important medical advance” of the 20th century. A variety of formulations of ORT exist, generally glucose or rice powder-based, which contain a variety of micronutrients, especially zinc (5).

“The assessment of the degree of volume loss in those with diarrhea to approximate volume and fluid losses can be found in ref 6 below. Those with severe hypovolemia should be initially rehydrated intravenously with a fluid bolus of normal saline or Ringer’s lactate solution of 20-30 ml/kg followed by 100 ml/kg in the 1st 4 hours and 100 ml/kg over the next 18 hours with regular reassessment. Those with lesser degrees of hypovolemia can be rehydrated orally with a glucose or rice-derived formula with up to 4 liters in the 1st 4 hours, and those with no hypovolemia can be given ORT after each liquid stool with frequent reevaluation.”

1. Guerrant RL, Carneiro-Filho BA, Dillingham RA. Cholera, diarrhea, and oral rehydration therapy: triumph and indictment. Clin Infect Dis. 2003; 37(3): 398-405; available at
2. Gregorio GV, Gonzales ML, Dans LF, Martinez EG. Polymer-based oral rehydration solution for treating acute watery diarrhoea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009; (2): CD006519. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006519.pub2; available at
3. Gore SM, Fontaine O, Pierce NF. Impact of rice based oral rehydration solution on stool output and duration of diarrhoea: meta-analysis of 13 clinical trials. BMJ 1992; 304(6822): 287-91; available at
4. Mahalanabis D, Choudhuri AB, Bagchi NG, et al. Oral fluid therapy of cholera among Bangladesh refugees. Johns Hopkins Med 1973; 132(4): 197-205; available at
5. Atia AN, Buchman AL. Oral rehydration solutions in non-cholera diarrhea: a review. Am J Gastroenterol 2009; 104(10): 2596-604; abstract available at
6. WHO. The treatment of diarrhoea, a manual for physicians and other senior health workers. 4th ed. 2005; available at
– Mod.LL]

See Also

Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (118): Africa, Asia 20171015.5376068
Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (116): Africa 20171011.5370768
Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (111): Africa, Asia 20171004.5359863
Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (109): Africa, Asia 20171002.5353515
Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (107): Africa 20171001.5349664
Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (104): Africa, Asia 20170927.5344097
Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (102): Africa 20170925.533
Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (98): Africa, Asia 20170914.5300906
Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (95): Africa, Asia 20170906.5296768
Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (90): Africa 20170825.5272065
Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (88): Africa, Asia 20170823.5267451
Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (86): Africa, Asia 20170818.5258780
Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (83): Africa, Yemen 20170814.5248768
Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (84): Africa 20170815.5252091
Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (82): Africa 20170809.5238710
Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (80): Africa, Asia 20170807.5233249
Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (78): Africa 20170730.5215414
Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (76): Africa 20170727.5209397
Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (74): Africa 20170725.5199934
Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (67): Africa, Asia 20170707.5157855
Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (63): Africa, Asia 20170629.5136975
Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (61): Africa, Asia 20170626.5127102
Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (59): Africa, Oceania 20170622.5123456
Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (57): Africa, Asia, Americas 20170621.5118234
Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (53): Africa 20170615.5107453
Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (52): Africa, Asia 20170614.5105568
Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (47): Africa 20170607.5089854
Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (43): Africa 20170602.5079810
Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (42): Africa 20170601.5076481
Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (40): Africa 20170530.5071407
Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (37): Africa 20170525.5061495
Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (36): Czech Republic ex Tanzania 20170525.50
Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (35): Africa, Asia 20170524.5059018
Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (33): Africa 20170523.5056047
Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (31): Africa 20170520.5045580
Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (28): Africa (Horn of Africa) 20170517.5040909
Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (24): Africa, Asia 20170510.5026111
Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (20) Africa, Americas 20170505.5015480
Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (19): Africa 20170504.5012967
Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (16): Africa (Horn of Africa) 20170425.4994572
Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (15): Africa, Asia 20170423.4989180
Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (12): Africa 20170416.4974364
Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (11): Africa, Asia 20170402.4942849
Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (10): Africa 20170323.4916153
Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (09): Africa 20170313.4898254
Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (06): Africa 20170217.4846873
Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (05): Africa, Asia 20170216.4841639
Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (02): Africa 20170113.4751889

A ProMED-mail post
ProMED-mail is a program of the International Society for Infectious Diseases


Rotavirus is a contagious virus that can cause gastroenteritis (inflammation of the stomach and intestines). Symptoms include severe watery diarrhea, often with vomiting, fever, and abdominal pain. Infants and young children are most likely to get rotavirus disease. They can become severely dehydrated and need to be hospitalized and can even die.

Vibrio cholerae, and Cryptosporidium parvum are several water safety threats classified as potential Category B bioterrorism pathogens that can cause Rotavirus symptoms. These are the second highest priority organisms/biological agents.

Pathogenic organisms and toxins such as these may persist in food and water supplies. Humans are also a source of infection.

Food or waterborne pathogens that may be used as bioterrorism agents:
Salmonella species
Shigella dysenteria
Escherichia coli 0157:H7
Giardia lamblia
Vibrio cholerae
Cryptosporidum species
Campylobacter species

Biological Hazard – Fatal Vibrio cholerae Outbreak/Epidemic (Update) 2017/10/18: Yemen

Yemen cholera outbreak closes in on 850,000 cases

Since the cholera outbreak began in October 2010, months after the Jan. 12, 2010 earthquake, 800,665 cases have been reported, including 9,480 deaths. This was the most recent data I reported on concerning the Haiti situation back in May.

Since Apr. 27, 2017 through Oct. 17, 2017, Yemen has seen 845,912 cases and 2170 deaths, in less than six months. While it appears to have slowed somewhat, that’s still 63,370 cases and 31 deaths since the beginning of the month.

The outbreak has quickly surpassed Haiti as the biggest since modern records began in 1949.

Experts believe it will reach a million cases by years end, including at least 600,000 cases in children.

“Cholera has been around in Yemen for a long time, but we’ve never seen an outbreak of this scale or speed. It’s what you get when a country is brought to its knees by conflict, when a healthcare system is on the brink of collapse, when its children are starving, and when its people are blocked from getting the medical treatment they need,” said Tamer Kirolos, Save the Children’s Country Director for Yemen.

“There’s no doubt this is a man-made crisis. Cholera only rears its head when there’s a complete and total breakdown in sanitation. All parties to the conflict must take responsibility for the health emergency we find ourselves in.”

Recent research by Save the Children found that there are more than one million acutely malnourished children under the age of five living in areas where cholera infection levels are high. Children with acute malnutrition are at least three times more likely to die from diarrheal diseases like cholera.

Diarrheal diseases like cholera are also themselves a leading cause of malnutrition – raising fears that even if children survive the outbreak they could be pushed further toward starvation.

“It’s simply unacceptable that children are trapped in a brutal cycle of starvation and sickness. We are dealing with a horrific scenario of babies and young children who are not only malnourished but also infected with cholera,” Kirolos added.

“The tragedy is both malnutrition and cholera are easily treatable if you have access to basic healthcare. But hospitals have been destroyed, 30,000 public sector health workers haven’t been paid for almost a year, and the delivery of vital aid is being obstructed. The world must act now to prevent more children from dying from an entirely preventable illness.”

18 October 2017
Outbreak News Today (edited)

See Also

Published Date: 2017-08-14 11:38:34
Subject: PRO/EDR> Cholera, diarrhea & dysentery update (83): Asia (Yemen)
Archive Number: 20170814.5248768

Date: Sun 13 Aug 2017
Source: Outbreak News Today [edited]

In a follow-up on the cholera epidemic in Yemen, health officials put the number of cases near a half million in less than 4 months, according to the WHO country office in Yemen.

More than 494 000 suspected cholera cases and 1966 associated deaths have been reported in 22 governorates and 298 districts in Yemen since 27 Apr 2017.

Communicated by:

[Although a number of sources had reported decreasing numbers of daily cases, the new numbers seem to support the continuing robust number of daily cases. If the epidemic were to continue at the current rate of cases per day, by the end of 2017, there could be 700 000 more cases for a total of 1.12 million cases since the end of April 2017, with 3300 more deaths for a total of about 5500 deaths over that period.]

The statistics related to this record-breaking epidemic of _V. cholerae_ in Yemen are shown below:

Date (2017) / Cases / Deaths
8 May / 1360 / 25
11 May / 2752 / 51
13 May / 8595 / 115
14 May / 11 000 / 180
17 May / 17 200 / 209
19 May / 23 500 / 242
21 May / 29 300 / 315
22 May / 35 217 / 361
24 May / 42 207 / 420
27 May / 51 832 / 471
30 May / 65 300 / 532
2 Jun / 73 700 / 605
4 Jun / 86 400 / 676
5 Jun / 91 400 / 728
6 Jun / 96 000 / 746
7 Jun / 101 820 / 789
10 Jun / 116 700 / 869
12 Jun / 124 002 / 923
14 Jun / 140 116 / 989
16 Jun / 151 000 / 1054
19 Jun / 166 976 / 1146
21 Jun / 179 548 / 1205
23 Jun / 200 000 / 1310
26 Jun / 219 000 / 1400
28 Jun / 231 364 / 1439
30 Jun / 240 000 / 1500
4 Jul / 275 987 / 1634
7 Jul / 297 438 / 1706
10 Jul / 313 538 / 1732
13 Jul / 332 600 / 1759
17 Jul / 356 591 / 1802
20 Jul / 368 207 / 1828
25 Jul / 402 484 / 1880
26 Jul / 408 583 / 1885
29 Jul / 419 804 / 1912
7 Aug / 463 000 / 1940
13 Aug / 494 000 / 1966

In the last complete year of data (2015;, WHO reported a total of 172 454 cases worldwide in 42 countries. This continuing cholera disaster in Yemen is only 12 weeks old and now has more than twice the total number of cases of 2015 and more than the peak year of the Haiti outbreak (2011) of 340 311 cases. – Mod.LL

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at:]

A ProMED-mail post
ProMED-mail is a program of the International Society for Infectious Diseases


Rotavirus is a contagious virus that can cause gastroenteritis (inflammation of the stomach and intestines). Symptoms include severe watery diarrhea, often with vomiting, fever, and abdominal pain. Infants and young children are most likely to get rotavirus disease. They can become severely dehydrated and need to be hospitalized and can even die.

Vibrio cholerae, and Cryptosporidium parvum are several water safety threats classified as potential Category B bioterrorism pathogens that can cause Rotavirus symptoms. These are the second highest priority organisms/biological agents.

Pathogenic organisms and toxins such as these may persist in food and water supplies. Humans are also a source of infection.

Food or waterborne pathogens that may be used as bioterrorism agents:
Salmonella species
Shigella dysenteria
Escherichia coli 0157:H7
Giardia lamblia
Vibrio cholerae
Cryptosporidum species
Campylobacter species

Catalan Independence? “Yeah, no?”

75 years after execution, no reparation from Spanish government to democratically elected Catalan president

Handed over to Spanish authorities by the Gestapo, Lluís Companys was sentenced to death in 1940 · Catalan institutions, parties and civil society groups call the Spanish government to honour Companys’s memory

It was on 15 October 1940 that Catalan president Lluís Companys was executed by firing squad at Montjuïc Castle in Barcelona. His death was decided by a Spanish military court just months after general Francisco Franco had won the Spanish Civil War and established his own dictatorship. 75 years after those events, the time has not yet arrived for an official reparation by the Spanish government.

Companys had been elected a member of the autonomous Catalan Parliament in 1932. Two years later he became Catalan president. During the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) he sided with the Spanish republican camp against a right-wing uprising led by Franco. As Francoists gained the upper hand in the conflict, Companys saw himself forced into exile in 1939. Seeking shelter in Brittany, Companys was arrested by Gestapo policemen in 1940, who handed him over to Spanish authorities. Only two months later he was executed.

Catalan institutions are these days marking Companys’s death amid demands to the Spanish authorities of sentence nullification. The last one to insist on those demands is the Barcelona city council, which two weeks ago passed a declaration calling the Spanish government to start procedures to nullify the trial against Companys. The text also calls Spain to “restore” the president’s honour by acknowledging the wrongs down to him.

In 2009, the Catalan government had in turn called the State Attorney to lodge an appeal to the Supreme Court so that the death sentence was nullified. But one year later, the Spanish Parliament rejected the proposal. Spain’s two largest parties -PP (People’s Party) and PSOE (Spanish Socialist Workers’ Party) – voted against a proposal introduced by Catalan pro-independence party ERC for a formal reparation of Companys’s memory.

PSOE then argued that a Spanish act on historical memory already deemed the death sentence to be illegitimate and out of democratic Spanish law, and thus it was not necessary to pass an explicit declaration on Companys.

But ERC -the party which Companys belonged to- believes that this does not amount to an official, sincere act of reparation by the Spanish authorities. In 2013, the Catalan party lodged a complaint before an Argentinian court on the grounds that Spain had committed a crime against humanity by killing Companys.

Demands for sentence nullification also stem from the Catalan civil society. The Dignity Commission group is asking Spanish president Mariano Rajoy to issue a formal condemnation of Companys’s death sentence.

The Dignity Commission has been for years calling the Spanish authorities to send back to Catalonia loads of documents confiscated by the Francoist dictatorship to Catalan political parties and associations.

15 October 2017
Nationalia (edited)

Catalan Countries

File:Paisos catalans.svg

(Catalan-speaking area in dark grey; light grey corresponds to non-Catalan sections of otherwise Catalan-speaking administrative divisions) Catalan Countries. Image: Wikipedia

General information


Administrative divisions of Catalonia. Image: Wikipedia Further information: Municipalities of Catalonia

Population: 14.000.000 inhabitants (est)

Area: 65.000 km² (est)

Institutions: Autonomous governments of Catalonia, Valencian Country, Balearic Islands and Government of Andorra

Major cities: Barcelona, València, Palma, Perpinyà

Administració estatal: Kingdom of Spain (Catalonia, Valencian Country, Balearic Islands and Franja), French Republic (Northern Catalonia) and Principality of Andorra

Territorial languages: Catalan, Occitan (Aran, Fenolheda), Spanish (western counties of the Valencian Country)

Official languages: Catalan (Catalonia, Valencian Country, Balearic Islands, Andorra), Spanish (Catalonia, Valencian Country, Balearic Islands), French (Northern Catalonia)

Major religion: Christianity (Catholicism)


The Catalan Countries are those territories that either are Catalan-speaking or are included in larger political units where Catalan is spoken. Based on political, historical or identity-related features, several main territorial units can be distinguished within the Catalan Countriestypically they are Catalonia, the Valencian Country, each one of the four Balearic Islands (Mallorca, Menorca, Ibiza and Formentera), the Franja, Andorra and Northern Catalonia. According to some conceptions, El Carxe and L’Alguer can also be added to the list.

Based on the idea of a common linguistic, cultural and historical heritage, some sectors of Catalan nationalism argue that the Catalan Countries, as a whole, form one single nation. Other sectors, on the contrary, counter that the Catalan Countries are a linguistic and cultural domain but not one common nation, and advocate instead that at least some of their territories are different nations on their own.

”Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.“ ~ George Santayana.

The Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) broke out when the Spanish army in Morocco when a few of the most influent generals of the Spanish Army, led by General Francisco Franco, rose up against the democratically elected Republican government, presided over by Manuel Azaña. Allegiances were not always clear-cut during this conflict. Essentially, the ranks of the Left (also known as Loyalist and Republican) comprised workers, peasants and trade unions, but also the Spanish government, Socialists, Communists and Anarchists. The Right (also known as Nationalist), was supported by rebellious factions of the army, industry, landowners, the middle classes and the Catholic Church. For various and somewhat contradictory reasons, the Loyalists received the support of the Soviet Union and European democracies, while the Nationalists were armed and equipped by the Fascist governments of Germany and Italy.


By May 1937 things had reached a point at which some kind of violent outbreak could be regarded as inevitable. The immediate cause of friction was the Government’s order to surrender all private weapons, coinciding with the decision to build up a heavily-armed ‘non-political’ police-force from which trade union members were to be excluded. The meaning of this was obvious to everyone; and it was also obvious that the next move would be the taking over of some of the key industries controlled by the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (C.N.T.) In addition there was a certain amount of resentment among the working classes because of the growing contrast of wealth and poverty and a general vague feeling that the revolution had been sabotaged.  –George Orwell, “A Homage To Catalonia”  (1938).

Sound familiar?