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Psycholinguistics, Suggestive Association, and Taxpayer Dollars


“It’s dangerous to be right when the government is wrong.”   ~ Voltaire

Criminal Restitution

Fear, fright, and intimidation may pass through long incubation periods and have extensive aftereffects on human thinking and the mind. The human brain is heavily burdened, and much time can elapse before the personality again finds the ability to stabilize itself.    ~ A.M. Meerloo M.D.

looter - A justice-involved youth goes shopping.

The Rewards of Looting: A justice-involved youth goes shopping. Image: moonbattery.com

Newspeak Dictionary Update: Justice-Involved Youth

As America is fundamentally transformed, updates to the Newspeak dictionary come fast and furious:

The Justice Department announced a plan to throw $1.75 million at young criminals in hopes that they don’t become adult criminals. But you’d never know that given the linguistic fog the DOJ has conjured up.A press release issued earlier this week describes a new $1.75 million grant program as designed “to help young people involved in the justice system find jobs and housing.”Wait, you ask, if these young people are “involved” in the justice system, doesn’t that mean they already have jobs? Like, say, as a trainee in the dispatcher’s office, or a desk clerk in the attorney general’s office, or maybe a janitor at the local courthouse?

There you see the confusion that can result from not keeping your Newspeak dictionary up to date. “Justice-involved youth” has replaced the more precise and therefore disfavored term “young criminal.”

[Byline Dave Blount]

See: Protection MoneyChronic criminality and rewarding criminals

Bomb Voyage – Another Premature Detonation spreads terrorism (literally)


Oops! Suicide bomber detonates vest early, kills 8 other terrorists

IndiaToday.in  | New Delhi, April 27, 2016

The militants were reportedly working for Mullah Wali, a Taliban commander. The group had planned a devastating attack on the northern Afghan city of Kunduz.

In a scene straight out of a Hollywood film, a Taliban fighter detonated his suicide vest by mistake, killing himself and his eight colleagues without a single civilian casualty.

The militants were reportedly working for Mullah Wali, a Taliban commander, British tabloid The Sun reported. The group had planned a devastating attack on the northern Afghan city of Kunduz.

The paper quoted the Afghan Ministry of Interior as saying the jihadis were all wearing suicide vests, and appeared to be plotting a coordinated attack.

On their way to Kunduz something went wrong and one of the fighters appears to have detonated his bomb prematurely. The explosion killed all the jihadis involved.

The Taliban has chosen to remain silent about the explosion, perhaps out of embarrassment, the tabloid said.

In an earlier incident, a group of 10 would-be bombers had blown themselves up whilst working on an IED in Ghazni province.

Similarly, in November last year, an incompetent jihadi was blown to pieces by a mortar whilst filming IS propaganda video.

[Byline Vishakha Saxena]

Obama and other Muslim Brotherhood members of the Obama Administration to send condolences to the families of the Islamist jihadis and will offer reparations for their loss. (ya think?)

The Agony of Freedom and Knowing


Why the Free Market Cannot Provide Renewable Energy Without the Government

turbine fail

Government lets you keep on failing. Image:  moonbattery.com

If “renewable” energy is such a great idea, why hasn’t the free market provided it without subsidies and coercion from the government? After all, capitalism has proven again and again that it can do most anything better than government can.

Here’s the answer:

Lake Land College recently announced plans to tear down broken wind turbines on campus, after the school got $987,697.20 in taxpayer support for wind power.

The turbines were funded by a $2.5 million grant from the U.S. Department of Labor, but the turbines lasted for less than four years and were incredibly costly to maintain.

“Since the installation in 2012, the college has spent $240,000 in parts and labor to maintain the turbines,” Kelly Allee, Director of Public Relations at Lake Land College, told The Daily Caller News Foundation.

The college estimates it would take another $100,000 in repairs to make the turbines function again after one of them was struck by lightning and likely suffered electrical damage last summer. School officials’ original estimates found the turbine[s] would save it $44,000 in electricity annually, far more than the $8,500 they actually generated. Under the original optimistic scenario, the turbines would have to last for 22.5 years just to recoup the costs, not accounting for inflation. If viewed as an investment, the turbines had a return of negative 99.14 percent.

The free market functions efficiently because it is compelled by reality to do what works. Something that produces a negative return of 99.14% does not work; therefore, the free market cannot provide it. But government exists in a realm of sheer moonbattery, where reality does not apply.

[College president Josh] Bullock states that the turbines simply haven’t been able to power the campus’ buildings…

At least a lesson was learned. Or maybe not:

Lake Land plans to replace the two failed turbines with a solar power system paid for by a government grant. “[T]he photovoltaic panels are expected to save the college between $50,000 and $60,000 this year,” Allee told the DCNF.

Yeah. Sure they will.

Students, get used to studying in the dark. Taxpayers, keep those wallets open.

[ Byline ]

See Also

FAIL: Busted Wind Turbines Give College Whopping Negative 99.14% Return On Investment

Biological Hazard – Plague (Yersinia Pestis) Animal Infection: Wyoming


PLAGUE, ANIMAL – USA (02): (WYOMING) FELINE
************************
Published Date: 2016-04-23 12:19:05
Subject: PRO/AH/EDR> Plague, animal – USA (02): (WY) feline
Archive Number: 20160423.4178118

Date: Thursday, 21 Apr 2016
Source: Wyoming Department of Health [edited]

Three Park County cats have recently been confirmed as infected with plague, according to the Wyoming Department of Health (WDH). No human cases have been identified. All 3 cats lived in Cody, off the South Fork Road. The illness was confirmed in the 1st pet by the Wyoming State Veterinary Laboratory in Laramie on 12 Apr 2016, with confirmation of the 3rd on 20 Apr 2016.

“Plague is a serious bacterial infection that can be deadly for pets and for people if not treated promptly with antibiotics,” said Dr Karl Musgrave, state public health veterinarian with WDH. “The disease can be transmitted to humans from ill animals and by fleas coming from infected animals. We want people to know of the potential threat in the area the cats were from as well as across the state. Dogs can also become ill and transmit the disease.”

“While the disease is rare in humans, it’s safe to assume that the risk for plague exists all around Wyoming,” Musgrave said. Six human cases of plague have been confirmed in Wyoming since 1978 with the last one reported in 2008. There are an average of 7 human cases across the nation each year.

Precautions Musgrave recommends to help prevent plague infections include:
– avoid unnecessary exposure to rodents;
– avoid contact with rodent carcasses;
– avoid areas with unexplained rodent die-offs;
– use insect repellent on boots and pants when in areas that might have fleas;
– use flea repellent on pets, and properly dispose of rodents pets may bring home.

Plague signs in animals can include enlarged lymph glands; swelling in the neck, face or around the ears; fever; chills; lack of energy; coughing; vomiting; diarrhea and dehydration. Ill animals should be taken to a veterinarian.

Plague symptoms in people can include fever, swollen and tender lymph glands, extreme exhaustion, headache, chills, coughing, difficulty breathing, abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhea. People who are ill should seek professional medical attention.

More information about plague is available online from the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention at http://www.cdc.gov/plague/.

communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[Plague is transmitted by fleas. There are several forms of plague in human beings: bubonic, septicemic and pneumonic.

Plague, caused by _Yersinia pestis_, is enzootic among rodents in the western United States. Humans can be infected through 1) the bite of an infected flea carried by a rodent or, rarely, other animals; 2) direct contact with contaminated tissues; or 3) in rare cases, inhalation of respiratory secretions from infected people or animals.

Plague is a potential bioterrorism agent. Human infections are rare but can be life-threatening. The case fatality rate of plague depends on the clinical presentation (that is, bubonic, septicemic, or pneumonic) and timing of initiation of antibiotic therapy; if untreated, the case fatality rate is over 50 per cent for bubonic plague and approaches 100 per cent for pneumonic plague. Rapid laboratory identification can help guide therapy.

Domestic cats and dogs can also contract plague from infective fleas. They may carry infected fleas home to their owners. Cats may serve as a direct source of infection. There are many flea treatments and repellents appropriate for pets available. Some products may be suitable for dogs but not cats, or may be suitable for an adult but not a younger animal. Be sure to consult your veterinarian, as some products may be toxic to cats, kittens, and puppies, even resulting in fatalities.

Clinical signs in pets involve a localized swelling, such as under the jaw in cats, but also in the inguinal region or under the front leg (the armpit, if you will), lethargy, anorexia, and fever. These clinical signs may be present in the dog as well. Swelling under the jaw in cats is frequently mistaken as a cat fight abscess. Please take your pet to a veterinarian if you notice any abnormalities.

Veterinarians should protect themselves by wearing gloves when examining these swellings. A bubo that ruptures may infect the veterinarian or even the pet owner if the pet owner is the one palpating the swelling.

Another form of the disease is the respiratory form. Cats may acquire this form and can spread it to their owners or the veterinarians through infected expiratory droplets. People are also prone to the respiratory infection.

You should also be aware that the fleas that hitchhike into the home via a pet vehicle can also transmit disease to you, the owner, or caretaker of the pet. Sleeping in the same bed with dogs has been associated with plague in enzootic areas. Plague patients with no history of exposure to rodents can be infected by _Y. pestis_ if their pets carry infected rodent fleas into the home. Veterinarians always should recommend flea control to dog and cat owners.

Plague is infamous for killing millions of people in Europe during the Middle Ages. Today, modern antibiotics are effective in treating plague. Without prompt treatment, the disease can cause serious illness or death. Presently, human plague infections continue to occur in the western United States, but significantly more cases occur in parts of Africa and Asia.

Parts of this comment have been excerpted from: CDC. Notes from the field: two cases of human plague — Oregon, 2010. MMWR, 25 Feb 2011; 60(07);214 http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6007a4.htm. And from http://www.cdc.gov/plague/. – Mod.TG

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at: http://healthmap.org/promed/p/14420.]

See Also

Plague, animal – USA: (NM) pets 20160117.3944780
2015

Plague, animal – USA (14): (CA) squirrel 20150907.3629694
Plague, animal – USA (13): (CA) squirrel 20150819.3588477
Plague, animal – USA (12): (CO) feline 20150802.3552460
Plague, animal – USA (11): (CO) squirrel 20150727.3540232
Plague, animal – USA (10): (UT) sylvatic, prairie dog, alert 20150715.3513063
Plague, animal – USA (09): (CO) mule deer, prairie dog 20150628.3470704
Plague – USA (02): (CO) fatality 20150623.3458401
Plague, animal – USA (08): (ID) vole, susp. 20150617.3443480
Plague, animal – USA (07): (ID) canine 20150608.3417597
Plague, animal – USA (06): (NE) prairie dog, spread 20150601.3400360
Plague, animal – USA (05): (ID) ground squirrel, alert 20150529.3394344
Plague, animal – USA (04): (NM) feline, canine 20150517.3368466
Plague, animal – USA (03): (AZ) feline, warning 20150511.3354008
Plague – USA: (CO) pneumonic, canine source, poss. human-to-human spread, 2014 20150501.3335475
Plague, animal – USA (02): (AZ) prairie dogs, fleas 20150406.3280037
Plague, animal – USA: (NM) multiple animals 20150116.3097674
2014

Plague – USA (06): (CO) septicemic 20140908.2757605
Plague, animal – USA (07): (CO) prairie dog, rabbit 20140825.2720056
Plague, animal – USA (06): comment 20140807.2666637
Plague, animal – USA (05): (CA) squirrel 20140804.2656788
Plague – USA (04): (NM) 20140803.2656232
Plague – USA (03): (CO) cluster from canine exposure 20140719.2621418
Plague, animal – USA: (NM) zoo 20140729.2643587
Plague – USA (02): (CO) pneumonic 20140710.2600593
Plague – USA: (NM) pneumonic 20140425.2430602
………………………………………….sb/tg/je/sh

Source:
A ProMED-mail post
ProMED-mail is a program of the International Society for Infectious Diseases


Category A Priority Pathogens

Plague is a Category A Bioterrorism agent. Category A Bioterrorism organisms/biological agents are high-priority pathogens posing a risk to national security, can be easily transmitted and disseminated, result in high mortality, have potential major public health impact, may cause public panic, or require special action for public health preparedness. — Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Biological Health Hazard – Human pneumonic plague infection (Yersinia Pestis): Washington State, USA


PLAGUE – USA: (WASHINGTON) PNEUMONIC, SUSPECTED, RFI
********************************
Published Date: 2016-04-24 07:18:44
Subject: PRO/AH/EDR> Plague – USA: (WA) pneumonic, susp, RFI
Archive Number: 20160424.4179379

Date: Friday, 22 Apr 2016
Source: Tri-City Herald [edited]

Benton-Franklin Health District investigating possible case of plague
———————————————————————
Benton-Franklin Health District was notified on Friday, 22 Apr 2016, that a local resident was being tested for a possible case of pneumonic plague. Test results are expected on Saturday [23 Apr 2016] from the Washington State Department of Health. The case has not been confirmed and there is no immediate risk to the general public, the health district said. The health district will continue to investigate the case, as it does with all reportable conditions.

Plague occurs naturally in the western United States; the last case in Washington State was in 1984. The plague bacterium (_Yersinia pestis_) is transmitted by fleas and cycles naturally among wild rodents. Plague can also infect humans and their pets. Plague can be treated successfully with antimicrobials, but an infected person must be treated promptly. Anyone who has been exposed to the illness can be treated with antibiotics before developing symptoms.

Plague is most often transmitted through bites of infected fleas. It can also be contracted by touching or skinning infected animals (coyotes, squirrels, rats, prairie dogs, and rabbits) or inhaling droplets from the cough of an infected person or animal (especially sick cats). The last reported human-to-human transmission in the US occurred in the 1920s.

[byline: Dawn J. Sagert]

communicated by:
ProMED-mail from HealthMap Alerts
<promed@promedmail.org>

[ProMED-mail awaits additional information about this case. – Mod.LL

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at: http://healthmap.org/promed/p/248.]

See Also

Plague, animal – USA: (NM) pets 20160117.3944780

2015

Plague – USA (17): (OR) bubonic 20151030.3755255
Plague – USA (16): (NM) septicemic 20150924.3668691
Plague – USA (15): (MI) ex CO, bubonic 20150911.3639675
Plague – USA (14): (NM) septicemic 20150904.3622887
Plague – USA (13): (UT) fatal 20150828.3608570
Plague – USA (12) 20150826.3602201
Plague – USA (11): (GA) ex CA, comments 20150822.3596108
Plague – USA (10): (NM) 20150822.3595447
Plague – USA (09): (GA) ex CA 20150821.3593443
Plague – USA (08): (CA) 20150819.3589079
Plague – USA (07): (CO) 20150808.3566831
Plague – USA (06): (CA) 20150807.3563153
Plague – USA (05): (CO) fatality 20150806.35
Plague – USA (04): (NM) pneumonic, fatality 20150726.3537026
Plague – USA (03): (CO) bubonic 20150721.3526149
Plague – USA (02): (CO) fatality 20150623.3458401
Plague – USA: (CO) pneumonic, canine source, poss. human-to-human spread, 2014 20150501.3335475

2014

Plague – USA (06): (CO) septicemic 20140908.2757605
Plague – USA (05): (CO) bubonic 20140813.2684621
Plague – USA (04): (NM) 20140803.2656232
Plague – USA (03): (CO) cluster from canine exposure 20140719.2621418
Plague – USA (02): (CO) pneumonic 20140710.2600593
Plague – USA: (NM) pneumonic 20140425.2430602

2013

Plague – USA (04): (NM) fatality 20131102.2035269
Plague – USA (03): (NM) bubonic 20130927.1972093
Plague – USA (02): (NM) bubonic 20130910.1935879
Plague – USA: (NM) 20130813.1878261
Plague, animal – USA: (CA) squirrel, alert 20130518.1720992
………………………………………….sb/ll/je/sh

Source:
A ProMED-mail post
ProMED-mail is a program of the International Society for Infectious Diseases


Biological Health Threat – Fatal Hantavirus (HPS) [Update]: San Luis Valley, Colorado


HANTAVIRUS UPDATE – AMERICAS (23): USA (COLORADO)
**********************
Published Date: 2016-04-24 12:22:30
Subject: PRO/AH/EDR> Hantavirus update – Americas (23): USA (CO)
Archive Number: 20160424.4179685

Date: Tuesday 19 Apr 2016
Source: The Denver Post [edited]

A San Luis Valley resident has died of [a] hantavirus [infection], a rare but often fatal illness spread by deer mice [_Peromyscus maniculatus_].

The death was announced on Tuesday [19 Apr 2016] by Ginger Stringer, Saguache County’s public health director. She did not identify the victim or the exact location, citing confidentiality concerns. She did offer advice on avoiding a disease that kills more than a third of those infected.

In the San Luis Valley, hantavirus is carried by deer mice, which have tawny backs, white bellies, big eyes and big ears. People get infected by breathing the virus when stirring dust from mouse nests or droppings in areas with poor ventilation. Closed spaces, such as attics, barns and sheds, may hold droppings of infected mice, as well as woodpiles occupied by mice.

“Keep mice away from areas where you live and work,” Stringer advised. “Store human food, pet food and bird seed in lidded containers or securely closing cabinets. Use traps baited with peanut butter to remove rodents from indoor areas. Keep garbage in tightly covered cans.”

Hantavirus [infection] symptoms typically show up 1-6 weeks after exposure and may begin with fatigue, fever and muscle aches, as well as dizziness and nausea. Four to 10 days later, a dry cough and breathing difficulties may develop as the lungs fill with fluid, followed by respiratory failure and possibly death.

Because of its rapid progression, Stringer advises people to seek medical care immediately if they develop symptoms within 6 weeks of exposure to mice or their droppings. Colorado averages about 4 confirmed cases of hantavirus yearly in different parts of the state. It has had more confirmed cases than any other state but New Mexico, according to Saguache County public health.

[byline: David Olinger]

communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[A few cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) have occurred in the western USA so far this year [2016]. The hantavirus responsible for this case was not specified but undoubtedly is Sin Nombre virus, which is endemic in deer mice (_Peromyscus maniculatus_) in Colorado. Although cases of Sin Nombre virus infection are relatively rare, they can be very serious, as the 4 HPS [hantavirus pulmonary syndrome] deaths in Colorado last year (2015) and 3 New Mexico fatalities in 2014 indicate.

The public needs to be aware of the circumstances that lead to risk of virus transmission. This is particularly important during spring and summer, when cabins and other outbuildings that have been closed for several months are reopened and cleaned out, raising dust that may be contaminated with virus from deer mice hosts. Previous posts this year [2016] indicate that increased precipitation due to El Nino climate effects may have an effect on mouse habitat, with increased exposure of humans in the region due to related increases in populations of Sin Nombre hantavirus-infected mice (see ProMED-mail archive no. 20160116.3942572).

A 20 Apr 2016 report of this same case provided additional helpful information about cleaning up rodent-infested areas. Open doors and windows and allow a room to air out for 30 minutes before going inside. Consider using a respirator mask (N-100 rating) that seals tightly to the face. DO NOT SWEEP OR DRY-VACUUM MOUSE DROPPINGS. Mix a fresh solution of one part bleach to 9 parts water (or 1 ½ cups [355 ml] bleach per gallon [3.8 l] of water). Wear rubber gloves and spray droppings, nests, and carcasses with the bleach and water solution. Let soak for 5-10 minutes before cleaning up with a mop, sponge, or wet vacuum. After disinfecting, place mouse carcasses, nests and cleaning materials into a plastic bag. Tie the bag shut and put it in an outdoor trashcan. Wash hands and clothing after clean up. (http://www.denverpost.com/news/ci_29787096/colorado-resident-killed-by-hantavirus-disease-spread-by).

An image of the deer mouse, _P. maniculatus_, can be seen at http://www.nsf.gov/news/mmg/media/images/mouse_f.jpg.

A map showing the location of Colorado in the USA can be accessed at http://www.worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/namerica/usstates/co.htm and a map showing Colorado counties at http://geology.com/state-map/colorado.shtml. – Mod.TY

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at: http://healthmap.org/promed/p/209.]

See Also

Hantavirus update – Americas (18): USA (NM) 20160406.4142637
Hantavirus – Americas (16): USA (AZ) 20160325.4119418
Hantavirus update – Americas (07): USA (NM) 20160205.3997720
Hantavirus update – Americas (05): USA (AZ) 20160126.3967940
Hantavirus update – Americas (03): USA (AZ) comment 20160116.3942572
Hantavirus update – Americas (02): USA (AZ) 20160114.3936962
2015

Hantavirus update – Americas (35): USA (CA) 20150816.3582657
Hantavirus update – Americas (33): USA (IN) 20150804.3558170
Hantavirus update – Americas (31): USA (TX) 20150712.3504236
Hantavirus update – Americas (28): USA (CO) 20150627.3469382
Hantavirus update – Americas (23): USA (CO) RFI 20150523.3380955
Hantavirus update – Americas (20): USA (UT) 20150503.3339109
Hantavirus update – Americas (17): USA (CO) 20150426.3323207
Hantavirus update – Americas (15): USA (CO) conf. 20150413.3295294
Hantavirus update – Americas (14): USA (CO) susp, RFI 20150412.3293370
………………………………………….sh/ty/msp/sh

Source:
A ProMED-mail post
ProMED-mail is a program of the International Society for Infectious Diseases


Category C Priority Pathogens

Hantavirus occurs in nature, but it is also considered a Category C bioterrorism agent. Category C organisms/biological agents are the third highest priority , and are emerging pathogens that might be engineered for mass dissemination because of their natural availability, ease of production and dissemination, high mortality rate, and ability to cause a major health impact.

Biological Health Threat – Hantavirus (Epidemic hemorrhagic fever [HFRS]): Asia – China [Update]


HANTAVIRUS UPDATE – ASIA (02): CHINA (ZHEJIANG)
***********************
Published Date: 2016-04-24 12:24:56
Subject: PRO/AH/EDR> Hantavirus update – Asia (02): China (ZJ)
Archive Number: 20160424.4179769

Date: Thursday 21 Apr 2016
Source: Quzhou Evening News [in Chinese, trans. Rapp.DS, edited]

Jiangshan Center for Disease Control said yesterday [20 Apr 2016] that a case of epidemic hemorrhagic fever [with renal syndrome, HFRS] was found in Jiangshan. The patient is receiving treatment under isolation. The confirmed patient stated that he had contact with dead rats on 5 Apr [2016] while doing farm work. After returning home that evening, he felt uncomfortable and developed a fever of 40.3 C [104 F] with lumbago and a reduction in urine output.

Epidemic hemorrhagic fever [HFRS] is caused by a virus (hantavirus). It is a disease that occurs in nature, and rodents are the main infectious source, passing via close contact and contact with diseased or dead animals or the corpse of patients, as well as the blood, secretions, faeces, vomit of patients or animals. It is transmitted through mucous membranes or broken skin. After infection, the main clinical manifestations are fever, bleeding, hyperemia, hypotensive shock, and renal damage. Classic symptoms are the 3 pains (headache, lumbago, orbital pain) and the 3 reds (face, neck and upper chest turn red).

“Surveillance of hemorrhagic fever over the past 2 years has shown that some wild rodents and house rats in Jiangshan are carriers of epidemic hemorrhagic fever. There was also a confirmed case in March of this year [2016].”

The Jiangshan Center for Disease Control reminds the public that once infectious hemorrhagic fever is confirmed, only treatment of symptoms is possible. Therefore, prevention is of utmost importance. Residents should undertake rodent extermination with appropriate rodent prevention measures at home. When working outside, socks should be worn, pants legs and cuffs strapped down to prevent bites from mites and other parasites. When contacting dead rodents, wear personal protection and handle them in a sterile fashion. Pay attention to food hygiene and safe storage of food to avoid accidentally consuming food contaminated by rodents or being bitten or scratched by rodents. Wounds should be cleaned promptly with prompt immunization for hemorrhagic fever. Diagnosis and treatment in hospitals should be sought as quickly as possible once symptoms appear.

[byline: Cheng Hanlu]


communicated by:
ProMED-mail rapporteur Dan Silver

[The specific hantavirus involved in this case is not stated. In Asia, the 5 recognized hantaviruses, with their main rodent reservoir species, are: Hantaan virus (_Apodemus agrarius_), Amur virus (_A. peninsulae_), Thailand virus (_Bandicota indica_), Seoul virus (widely distributed worldwide in _Rattus norvegicus_), and Muju virus (_Myodes regulus_). Hantaan virus and Seoul virus cause cases of HFRS frequently in China. A bunyavirus, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) virus is unlikely, as during the winter season, ticks, the vectors of this virus, will not be active.

Hantaan virus has several (up to 5 have been reported) subtypes and is transmitted by the field mouse _Apodemus agrarius_, whereas Seoul virus is less variable and is transmitted by the rat _Rattus norvegicus_. A 3rd hantavirus that causes HFRS, Muju virus, has been reported from the Korean peninsula. Since Zhejiang province is coastal and the case occurred in a rural area, either Hantaan or Seoul virus could be involved. It has been reported that during 1990-1997, there were recorded in China nearly 400 000 cases of HFRS, of which 1.6 per cent were fatal.

An image of _Apodemus agrarius_ can be seen at http://www.hlasek.com/foto/apodemus_agrarius_11035.jpg and of _Rattus norvegicus_ at http://www.discoverlife.org/im/I_RB/0000/320/Rattus_norvegicus,I_RB27.jpg.

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map showing the location of Hunan province in eastern China can be accessed at http://healthmap.org/promed/p/341.
Maps of China can be accessed at http://www.sacu.org/maps/provmap.png and
http://www.worldatlas.com/as/cn/43/a-hunan-province-china.html. – Mod.TY

A HealthMap/ProMED-mail map can be accessed at: http://healthmap.org/promed/p/352.]

See Also

Hantavirus update – Asia: China (HN) RFI 20160101.3905948
2011

Hantavirus infection – China: (Shandong) 20111231.3727
2008

Hantavirus infection – Taiwan ex China (Inner Mongolia) 20080119.0249
2000

Hantavirus infection – China: background (02) 20001126.2056
Hantavirus infection – China (Chongqing) (02) 20001121.2020
Hantavirus infection – China (Chongqing): alert 20001117.2008
Hantavirus infection – China: background 20001118.2015
Hantavirus infection – China (Chongqing): alert 20001117.2008
………………………………………….sh/ty/msp/sh

Source:
A ProMED-mail post
ProMED-mail is a program of the International Society for Infectious Diseases


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