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Biological Health Hazard – Anthrax (Human, Bovine): Bangladesh [more cases]

2016/06/14

ANTHRAX – BANGLADESH (06): (RAJSHAHI) HUMAN, BOVINE, MORE CASES
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Published Date: 2016-06-13 20:07:25
Subject: PRO/AH/EDR> Anthrax – Bangladesh (06): (RS) human, bovine, more cases
Archive Number: 20160613.4284617

Date: Saturday, 11 June 2016
Source: Outbreak News Today [edited]

In a follow-up on the human anthrax outbreak in northern Bangladesh, the Sirajganj Health District puts the total human anthrax case count at 125 through [30 May 2016] from Ullapara, Shahzadpur, and Kamarkhand upazilas (counties) and experts say Sirajganj is the most vulnerable to anthrax infection because the germ of the disease has been there since a long time.

“The bacteria normally rest in the soil, and can survive for 60 to 100 years in that state. It might have been brought to the district through any diseased animal earlier. When the animal died, people buried it in the field. So the germ got mixed with the soil,” said Gulzar Hossain, deputy director of regional disease research centre in Sirajganj, Bangladesh media reports.

Cattle are infected while grazing the grass, and die within 4 to 5 days, he explained. “The spread of anthrax in the area this year [2016] is due to toxic reaction in the soil caused by strong humidity and slight rain,” Gulzar said.

In addition, the outbreak has been linked to the slaughtering of diseased cows, lack of proper monitoring and allegations of a livestock department not keeping up on vaccinations.

Anthrax is a pathogen in livestock and wild animals. Some of the more common herbivores are cattle, sheep, goats, horses, camels, and deer. It infects humans primarily through occupational or incidental exposure with infected animals of their skins [that is, infected animal blood on a human arm with cuts. – Mod.MHJ]

[Byline: Robert Herriman]


Communicated by:
ProMED-mail
<promed@promedmail.org>

[“Toxic reaction in the soil” … don’t know what that is. With the right black alkaline soils one can get limited germination and cycling. How important this is to the ecology of this disease is unclear as the organism soon runs out of nutrients and sporulates. Rain will also float spores to the soil surface. Unfortunately Sirajganj has clay soils which are normally inimical for extended spore survival. I suspect that a few more animals have died and were butchered with bad results for the humans who came into contact with the contaminated blood and meat. And publicity revealed more human cases. Until livestock vaccination is implemented this will continue.

Maps of Bangladesh can be seen at http://tinyurl.com/bw2fuve and http://healthmap.org/promed/p/13276. – Mod.MHJ]

See Also

Anthrax – Bangladesh (05): (RS) human, bovine, more cases 20160610.4277949
Anthrax – Bangladesh (04): (RS) human, bovine, more cases 20160528.4250810
Anthrax – Bangladesh (03): (RS) human, bovine, more cases 20160518.4230232
Anthrax – Bangladesh (02): (RS) human, bovine, more cases 20160517.4227714
Anthrax – Bangladesh: (RS) human, bovine 20160514.4222230

2013
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Anthrax – Bangladesh (05): (KH, RS) human, bovine 20130907.1929746
Anthrax – Bangladesh: (RS) human, livestock 20130312.1583076

2012
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Anthrax, human – Bangladesh: 2011 case notes 20120830.1273237

2011
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Anthrax, human, livestock – Bangladesh (10): (RS) 20110823.2562
Anthrax, human, livestock – Bangladesh (09): (KH) 20110718.2174
Anthrax, human, livestock – Bangladesh (08): (PB, SR) 20110618.1865
Anthrax, human, livestock – Bangladesh (07) 20110612.1795
Anthrax, human, livestock – Bangladesh (06): (SR) 20110610.1765
Anthrax, human, livestock – Bangladesh (05): (SR, PB) 20110607.1738
Anthrax, human, livestock – Bangladesh (04): (PB) 20110603.1698
Anthrax, human, livestock – Bangladesh (03): (SR, PB) 20110602.1686
Anthrax, human, livestock – Bangladesh: more cases 20110529.1648
Anthrax, human, caprine – Bangladesh: (PB) 20110515.1484
Anthrax, bovine – Bangladesh: (BA) NOT 20110505.1391
Anthrax, human, bovine – Bangladesh (24): Eid 20101111.4086

2010
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Anthrax, human, bovine – Bangladesh (09): (SR, PB) 20100831.3109
Anthrax, human, bovine – Bangladesh (08): (SR, PB) 20100828.3066
Anthrax, human, bovine – Bangladesh (07): (SR) 20100827.3044
Anthrax, human, bovine – Bangladesh (06): (SR) 20100826.3009
Anthrax, human, bovine – Bangladesh (05): (SR) conf. 20100825.2996
Anthrax, human, bovine – Bangladesh (04): (SR) susp. 20100824.2970
Anthrax, human, bovine – Bangladesh (02): (SR) 20100820.2914
………………………………………….sb/sh/mhj/mj/ml

ANTHRAX – INDIA (06): (JHARKHAND) LATEHAR INCIDENT
Published Date: 2016-04-05 08:05:29
Subject: PRO/AH/EDR> Anthrax – India (06): (JH) Latehar incident
Archive Number: 20160405.4138343

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Source:
A ProMED-mail post
ProMED-mail is a program of the International Society for Infectious Diseases


Category A – Bioterrorism Agents

Category A pathogens are those organisms/biological agents that pose the highest risk to national security and public health because they can be easily disseminated or transmitted from person to person; result in high mortality rates and have the potential for major public health impact; might cause public panic and social disruption, and require special action for public health preparedness. — National Institutes of Health

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Anthrax is a  high-priority agent and poses a high risk to national security, it can be easily transmitted and disseminated, result in high mortality, has potential major public health impact, may cause public panic, or require special action for public health preparedness.

Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) is a non-contagious disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. An anthrax vaccine does exist but requires many injections for stable use. When discovered early, anthrax can be cured by administering antibiotics (such as ciprofloxacin).[11] Its first modern incidence in biological warfare were when Scandinavian “freedom fighters” supplied by the German General Staff used anthrax with unknown results against the Imperial Russian Army in Finland in 1916.[12] In 1993, the Aum Shinrikyo used anthrax in an unsuccessful attempt in Tokyo with zero fatalities.[8] Anthrax was used in a series of attacks on the offices of several United States Senators in late 2001. The anthrax was in a powder form and it was delivered by the mail.[13] Anthrax is one of the few biological agents that federal employees have been vaccinated for. The strain used in the 2001 anthrax attack was identical to the strain used by the USAMRIID.[14]   -–Wikipedia

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