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Biological Health Hazard – Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD): Thailand, Vietnam

2017/03/03

HAND, FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE UPDATE (02): THAILAND, VIETNAM
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Published Date: 2017-03-03 12:17:40
Subject: PRO/EDR> Hand, foot & mouth disease update (02): Thailand, Vietnam
Archive Number: 20170303.4875744

In this update:
[1] Thailand
[2] Vietnam

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[1] Thailand
Date: Tue 21 Feb 2017
Source: Thai Visa News [edited]

The ministry of Public Health has warned teachers and parents about the dangers of hand, mouth and foot (HMFD) in young children.

Public Health Minister Piyasakol Sakolsattayathorn said that there were a total of 6790 HMFD patients identified from [Sun 1 Jan – Tue 14 Feb 2017], according to the Department of Disease Control (DDC). Most of the patients were small children aged under 5. He has instructed the provincial public health offices nationwide to ask local child development centers and kindergartens to continuously prevent more infections.

The best way to prevent the disease is to keep oneself clean and to wash children’s hands often, said the Public Health Minister.

The hand, foot, and mouth disease is caused by a virus. Patients will experience fever and sores in or on their mouth, hands, and feet.


Communicated by:
ProMED-mail from HealthMap Alerts
<promed@promedmail.org>

[Six thousand seven hundred and ninety cases is a high number, but although severe disease may occur, most notably with EV71 infection in children, severe disease was not noted here. But see discussion in [2].

HFMD is a common viral illness that usually affects infants and children younger than 5 years old. However, it can sometimes occur in older children and adults. It usually starts with a fever, reduced appetite, sore throat, and a feeling of being unwell (malaise). One or 2 days after the fever starts, painful sores can develop in the mouth, often in the back of the mouth, as small red spots that blister and can become ulcers. A skin rash with red spots, and sometimes with blisters, may also develop over 1 or 2 days on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet; it may also appear on the knees, elbows, buttocks or genital area. Dehydration may occur because blisters in the mouth create pain with swallowing. Some people, especially adults, may show no symptoms at all, but they can still pass the virus to others. (Excerpted from CDC). – Mod.LK]

[A healthmap of Thailand may be found at http://healthmap.org/promed/p/151.]

******
[2] Vietnam
Date: Wed 1 Mar 2017
Source: Outbreak News Today [edited]

The number of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) cases reported in Vietnam in 2017 is increased compared to the same period in 2016, according to the General Department of Preventive Medicine, Ministry of Health, Viet Nam.

The cumulative number of cases as of [Sat 11 Feb 2017] is 5252 cases with no deaths. Compared to the same period in 2016 (3999 cases and 6 deaths), the number of cases is greater by 31 percent.

HFMD is typically a benign and self-limiting disease. Most common in young children, it presents as fever, oral lesions and rash on the hands, feet and buttocks. The oral lesions consist of rapidly-ulcerating vesicles on the buccal mucosa, tongue, palate and gums. The rash consists of papulovesicular lesions on the palms, fingers and soles, which generally persist for 7 to 10 days, and maculopapular lesions on the buttocks.

Hand, foot, and mouth disease is caused by viruses that belong to the Enterovirus genus (group). This group of viruses includes polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and enteroviruses.

Enterovirus 71 has been implicated in HFMD outbreaks in Southeast Asia over several years. EV 71 is a non-polio enterovirus.

Complications associated with HFMD caused by the more pathogenic EV-71 strain include encephalitis, aseptic meningitis, acute flaccid paralysis, pulmonary edema or hemorrhage and myocarditis. Most deaths in HFMD occur as a result of pulmonary edema or hemorrhage.

[Byline: Robert Herriman]


Communicated by:
ProMED-mail from HealthMap Alerts
<promed@promedmail.org>

[HFMD is caused by such non-polio enteroviruses as coxsackie viruses A16, A4, A5, A9, A10, B2 and B5 and enterovirus 71. Its most common causes are coxsackie virus A16 (CAV 16) and enterovirus 71 (EV 71).

Infection with EV71 is usually asymptomatic or associated with a mild non-specific illness. More severe presentations do occur, particularly in children. Presentations include exanthems (including HFMD), herpangina, conjunctivitis, encephalitis, aseptic meningitis, acute flaccid paralysis, acute respiratory problem and myopericarditis. It should be noted that infection with EV 71 may result in complications without producing clinically-evident HFMD. This occurred in the context of a large outbreak of EV 71 in Bulgaria.

EV 71 is transmitted through direct contact with discharge from the nose and throat, saliva, fluid from blisters or the stools of an infected person. Cases are most infectious during the 1st week of acute illness but may continue to shed virus in stool for weeks. The incubation period is 3 — 5 days. The epidemiological pattern varies by geographical region and climate, but the incidence of infection is higher in the summer and autumn months in temperate climates while remaining prevalent year-round in tropical climates. (Excerpted and edited from http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/id-mi/ev71-eng.php). – Mod.LK]

[A HealthMap of Viet Nam can be found at http://healthmap.org/promed/p/152.]

See Also

Hand, foot & mouth disease update (01): Southeast Asia, UK, USA, Domin. Rep. RFI 20170218.4847712

2016
—-
Hand, foot & mouth disease – Northern Mariana Islands, Grenada 20161030.4594323
Hand, foot & mouth disease – USA (11): (WI) school 20161024.4581707
Hand, foot & mouth disease – USA (10): (IL) University of Illinois 20161020.4574189
Hand, foot & mouth disease – China (03): (HK): 20161007.4543101
Hand, foot & mouth disease – China (02): (HK) 20160522.4237221
Hand, foot & mouth disease – China: (BJ, GX) vaccine 20160329.4124126

2016
—-
Hand, foot & mouth disease – USA (09): (WI,AZ): 20161007.4542511
Hand, foot & mouth disease – USA (08): (CT, OH) 20161001.4529788
Hand, foot & mouth disease: St Maarten, USA (CT) 20160922.4508252
Hand, foot & mouth disease – USA (07): (KS) 20160818.4423843
Hand, foot & mouth disease – USA (06): (NC, KS) 20160728.4377209
Hand, foot & mouth disease – USA (05): (IA) 20160717.4351506
Hand, foot & mouth disease – USA (04): (CA) 20160505.4204778
Hand, foot & mouth disease – USA (03): (WA) 20160430.4191162
Hand foot & mouth disease – USA (02): (CA) coxsackievirus 20160413.4158388
Hand, foot & mouth disease – USA: (CA) fitness club 20160306.4072937

2015
—-
Hand, foot & mouth disease – USA: (WI) school 20151023.3736703
Hand, foot & mouth disease – China (06): (HK) update, children residential home 20151202.3834826
Hand, foot & mouth disease – China (05): (HK) update, school outbreaks, EV71 20151126.3821764
Hand, foot & mouth disease – China (04): (HK) school outbreaks 20151118.3799693
Hand, foot & mouth disease – China (03): (HK) school outbreak 20150927.3674603
Hand, foot & mouth disease – China (02): (HK) police recruits 20150829.3609404
Hand, foot & mouth disease – China (HK) 20150623.3459638

2012
—-
Hand, foot & mouth disease – USA (05): (PA), sports-related 20120925.1308763
and other items in the archives
………………………………………….sb/lk/ec/ml

Source:
A ProMED-mail post
ProMED-mail is a program of the International Society for Infectious Diseases


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