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Raging at The Ghost in the Machine – Simulations or something else?


How the brain suppresses the act of revenge

Researchers find which brain zones are activated in anger

Researchers have developed an economic game in which a participant is confronted with the fair behavior of one player and the unfair provocations of another player. They observed which areas were activated as the participant experienced unfairness and anger. Then scientists gave the participant the opportunity to take revenge. They thus identified the location in the brain of activations that are related to the suppression of the act of revenge in the dorsolateral prefontal cortex.

Université de Genève. “How the brain suppresses the act of revenge: Researchers find which brain zones are activated in anger.” ScienceDaily. (accessed September 6, 2018).

The desire for revenge can be the consequence of a feeling of anger. But is this the case at the cerebral level? What happens in the human brain when injustice is felt?

To answer these questions, researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, have developed an economic game in which a participant is confronted with the fair behavior of one player and the unfair provocations of another player. They then observed, through brain imaging, which areas were activated as the study participant experienced unfairness and anger. In a second phase, scientists gave the participant the opportunity to take revenge. They thus identified the location in the brain of activations that are related to the suppression of the act of revenge in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The more active the DLPFC is during the provocation phase, the less the participant takes revenge. These results have now been published in Scientific Reports.

Until now, research on anger and the vengeful behavior that results from it has been based primarily on the recall of a feeling of anger by the participants, or on the interpretation of anger on photographed faces. Olga Klimecki-Lenz, a researcher at UNIGE’s Swiss Center for Affective Science (CISA), wanted to locate live which areas of the brain reacted when the person became angry and how this feeling materialized into vengeful behavior.

Getting angry playing the Inequality Game

25 people took part in the Inequality Game, an economic game created by Olga Klimecki-Lenz to trigger a feeling of injustice, then anger, before offering the “victim” the possibility of revenge. “The participant has economic interactions with two players, whose behavior is actually pre-programmed — which he doesn’t know about, explains Olga Klimecki-Lenz. One is friendly, offers the participant only mutually beneficial financial interactions and sends nice messages, while the other player makes sure to multiply only his own profits, going against the participant’s interest and sending annoying messages.”

The game takes place in three phases, during which the participant is installed in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner allowing scientists to measure his brain activity. The participant is then confronted with the photographs of the other two players and the messages and financial transactions that he receives and issues. In the first phase, the participant is in control and chooses which profits he distributes to whom. “We noticed that on average, participants here are fair towards both other players,” says Olga Klimecki-Lenz. The second phase is that of provocation: the participant passively receives the decisions of the other two players, and especially the provocations and injustice of the unfair player, which induce a feeling of anger rated on a scale from 0 to 10 by the participant himself. In the last phase, the participant is again the master of the game and can choose to take revenge or not by penalizing the other two players. Overall, participants remained nice to the fair player, but took revenge for the injustices committed by the unfair player.

The amygdala again!

The provocation phase played a crucial role in localizing the feeling of anger in the brain. “It was during this phase that we were able to identify which areas were related to feelings of anger,” adds Olga Klimecki-Lenz. Thanks to MRI, researchers observed activity of the superior temporal lobe, but also of the amygdala, known mainly for its role in the feeling of fear and in processing the relevance of emotions, when participants looked at the photograph of the unfair player. These two areas correlated with feelings of anger: the higher the level of anger reported by the participant, the stronger their activity.

Localized and defused revenge

“But the Inequality game allowed us above all to identify the crucial role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), a zone which is key for the regulation of emotions and which is located at the front of the brain!” Olga Klimecki-Lenz explains enthusiastically. On average, participants took revenge on the unfair player. However, the researchers observed a variability in behavior that shows that 11 participants nevertheless remained fair to the unfair player. But why so? The CISA team observed that the greater the DLPFC activity during the provocation phase, the less participants punished the unfair player. On the contrary, low DLPFC activity was associated with a more pronounced revenge on the participant following provocation by the unfair player. “We observed that DLPFC is coordinated with the motor cortex that directs the hand that makes the choice of vengeful behavior or not,” continues the CISA researcher. “There is therefore a direct correlation between brain activity in DLPFC, known for emotional regulation, and behavioral choices.”

Suppress revenge by stimulating DLPFC?

For the first time, the role of DLPFC in revenge has been identified and is distinct from concentrated areas of anger in the amygdala and superior temporal lobe. “One can then wonder if an increase in the activity of DLPFC obtained through transmagnetic stimulation, would allow to decrease the acts of vengeance or even to suppress them,” says Olga Klimecki-Lenz.

Story Source:

Materials provided by Université de Genève. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Journal Reference:

  1. Olga M. Klimecki, David Sander, Patrik Vuilleumier. Distinct Brain Areas involved in Anger versus Punishment during Social Interactions. Scientific Reports, 2018; 8 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-28863-3


Neuromodulation of group prejudice and religious belief

Scientists claim they can change your belief on immigrants and God — with Magnets


“The psychopolitician has the advantage of naming as a delusory symptom any attempt on the part of a subject to expose commands. The psychopolitician has his reward in the nearly unlimited control of populaces, in the uninhibited exercise of passion, and the glory of Communist conquest over the stupidity of the enemies of the People.” — Brainwashing: A Synthesis of the Russian Textbook on Psychopolitics

Many questions have been asked about what neuroscience might offer for the law.  For instance, might neuroscience fundamentally change concepts of legal responsibility?  Or could aspects of a convicted person’s brain help to determine whether they are at an increased risk of reoffending?  Will it ever be possible to use brain scans to ‘read minds’, for instance with the aim of determining whether they are telling the truth, or whether their memories are false?  It has been suggested that “for the law, neuroscience changes nothing and everything”.  



According to the latest from LiveScience:

Under the proposed budget, released Tuesday (March 4, 2014), the National Institutes of Health (NIH) will contribute an estimated $100 million to the effort; the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) will invest $80 million; and the National Science Foundation (NSF) will provide another $20 million. (Source)


The NIH plans to develop a “toolbox” of technologies to map the brain’s circuitry, measure activity in brain circuits and probe how these circuits lead to unique human cognition and behavior.

DARPA will continue to develop memory prostheses as part of an effort called Restoring Active Memory, to create medical devices that measure and stimulate neurons to ease the symptoms of diseases such as PTSD and depression, a project called Systems-Based Neurotechnology for Emerging Therapies (SUBNETS); and to develop prosthetic limbs that would restore control and sensation to amputees, known as Prosthetic Hand Proprioception and Touch Interfaces (HAPTIX).

The NSF will focus on three main areas: interdisciplinary research; new theories, models and tools to guide research; and technologies to handle huge amounts of new data. The NSF has already provided $25 million in funding to an MIT research center for “Brains, Minds and Machines,” as well as funding to support scientific collaborations.

According to the Buddha, the failure to recognize the illusion of the self is the source of all ignorance and unhappiness.


See Also

The Ghost in the Machine is a 1967 book about philosophical psychology by Arthur Koestler. The title is a phrase coined by the Oxford philosopher Gilbert Ryle to describe the Cartesian dualist account of the mind–body relationship. Wikipedia

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